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Full text of "The Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918 : an account of its ravages in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, and the efforts made to combat and subdue it"

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WC 515 H342S 1920 
0266067 




BRARY OF MEDICINE 



NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 



NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 




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NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 



NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 



Return To: 

National Library of Medicine 
8600 Rockviile Pike 
BIdg. 38, Room B1-E23 
Bethesda, UD 20694 



IBRARY OF MED 



MAR 0^ 2000 




NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 




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fanbrnir of 1913 




IS AWARDED TO 




PHYSICIANS, NURSES, RED CROSS 
WORKERS and VOLUNTEERS 



most of whom sacrificed much time, many of whom sacrificed their health, 
and several gave their lives, in the care, nursing and relief of the stricken 
people of Luzerne County during the world epidemic, and whose measures 
of relief were gratefully received by our people, many of whom were 
aliens and strangers, who, understanding little of our language, neverthe- 
less understood the care and love bestowed upon them at the time of their 
great affliction. 

History records many instances of epidemics, famines and wars, 
where measures of relief were taken for those who were most sorely 
afflicted, and the battlefields of our recent war scintillate with heroism. 
Individuals, platoons, whole companies and regiments offered themselves 
tor their fellow men, and future historians will vie with one another in 
their endeavor to have live the thousands of heroic incidents in the great 
World War, to the end that they may serve as lamps for the feet of com- 
ing generations of freemen. 

Nevertheless, civic life — those back home, those who were not in- 
spired in the presence of the glare and pageantry of military life, those 
whose call to duty was heard and as readily performed in no less a meas- 
ure of satisfaction — were willing and anxious to take part in the work 
demanded of humanity, and were ready to give their all, if need be, 
for those who so sorely needed succor. 

We are proud of the citizens of Luzerne County — we are proud of 
the men and women who live on the fair hills and in the valleys of this 
County — and as a people we are most grateful for the services so willingly 
offered, the sacrifices so commonly made, and the heroic work so oppor- 
tunely accomplished. 

This devotion given and shown to their fellow men, to women and to 
helpless children, testifies splendidly to a love of country and of fellow 
men, as well as to that love of humanity taught by the lowly and great 
Nazarene. 

This expression, so briefiy recorded here, is intended as a testimonial 
of, and appreciation for, each individual identified with the care and 
relief of the stricken people of Luzerne County. A record is herewith 
preserved of the names, so far as known, of those who are thus entitled 
to receive the same. 

The Committee in whose hands the organization and distribution of 
relief was placed, testifies in this brief way to the splendid work accom- 
plished, and the highly successful co-operative movement of the State, 
County, Cities and Towns, and does so, with the thought that their fellow 
citizens, when they shall have read of the epidemic as here set forth, will 
feel that they are duly bound to express personally, and publicly, when- 
ever occasion offers, something of their willingness to give a full measure 
of approval to those who made sacrifices in the work so nobly done. 



GENERAL COMMITTEE 

Luzerne County Influenza Epidemic, 1918-1919 



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EARLY in September, 191 8, the United States was invaded 
by a scourge of highly infectious and fatal disease, which 
spread with rapidity throughout the country. It was 
pandemic in its nature, and partook of many of the character- 
istics of influenza, grip and pneumonia. No one seemed to know 
much about the disease or its treatment, and medical science and 
public health agencies were alike unprepared to cope with it. 

About all that could be done at the start was to adopt and 
attempt to enforce drastic regulations to minimize contagion ; but 
even in view of these regulations, and when the plague had burst 
forth in all its widespread malignity, the country at large seemed 
slow to awaken to the enormity of the peril which it faced. 

It certainly was a disconcerting fact that, at the very time when 
vast numbers of the people in widely-distributed localities had 
organized themselves, through the Red Cross and other well- 
known and efficient mediums, to fight disease and prevent suffer- 
ing and death, we should be smitten with a visitation which caused 
more casualties and deaths among the peaceful citizens in the 
homeland than the deadly missiles and poisonous gases of the 
enemy effected among the American Expeditionary Forces over- 
seas in the great World War. 

From September 9 to November 9, according to reports re- 
ceived by the Federal Census Bureau from forty-six large cities 
in the United States having a combined population of 23,000,000 
souls, there was a total of 82,306 deaths attributed to the scourge. 
In a similar period of time, in the same communities, the normal 
number of deaths dues to influenza and pneumonia would have 
been about 4,000. 

In the latter part of September 85,000 cases in Massachusetts 
alone were reported ; and by the first week in October the disease 
was prevalent in nearly all sections of the United States — 
twenty-three States, from Massachusetts in the East to California 
in the West, and from Florida in the South-east to Washington 



Page four. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



in the North-west, were experiencing the mysterious malady. 
More than 14,000 cases in the miHtary camps of the country were 
reported to the office of the Surgeon General of the Army within 
one period of twenty-four hours. 

Up to January 4, 191 9, according to the Census Bureau, the 
mortality due to the fatal disease was 115,258 in forty-six cities 
of the United States containing one-fifth of the population of the 
country ; while, according to statistics submitted to the Actuarial 
Society of America in July, 1919, 450,000 deaths occurred in the 
United States in the Autumn and early Winter of 1918 due to 
this pandemic disease — which wrought its greatest havoc among 
infants and persons in adult working life. The mortality of 
males was greater than that of females, while the highest mor- 
tality caused by the disease affected persons of the wage-earning 
class — especially those situated in the lowest economic range. 

The origin or source of the disease was unknown. Some 
experts looked upon it as simply a variety of a well-known disease 
prevalent, with occasional outbreaks of violence, for hundreds 
of years. Others attempted to identify it with a form of pneu- 
monic plague that has raged in parts of China for a number of 
years past — China and its neighboring lands in Asia forming a 
vast storehouse of infection from which great epidemics have 
swept in waves across and around the globe. 

It is an historic fact that, in the early part of 191 7 about 200,000 
coolies, collected from the northern part of China (where the 
pneumonic plague had raged for six or seven years), were sent to 
France as laborers, and with them went the germs of the pneu- 
monic plague. Many of these coolies were captured by the Ger- 
mans in the Spring of 1918— hence the outbreak of the plague, 
at that time, in the German army, where it is said to have been 
very serious in its deadly character. 

There were some writers of the press who declared that the 
disease had been brought into this country in German submarine 
boats ; but when it was realized that, like a scourge of the Middle 
Ages, it was sweeping through Europe— no part of which, civil- 
ized or barbarian, was exempt — it was called by many experts a 
by-product of the World War. 

The manner of the pandemic's appearance in different countries 
indicated that the germs of the disease had been conveyed thither 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page five. 



by the currents of the air. Therefore the theory was broached, 
that the poison gases, with which many sectors of the fighting 
area in Europe and Asia were drenched, were carried by the 
winds in every direction, causing the outbreak of the pandemic in 
England, Germany, France, Spain, AustraHa, Africa and Asia, 
as well as in North America and some of the South American 
countries. 

The disease took its deadly toll even in lonely Labrador, in the 
"silent North" of the Western Hemisphere, where ice-floes from 
farther north fill every harbor of the rock-bound coast; where 
giant icebergs, miles in length, mountains in height and acres in 
extent bar the paths of ships and steamers. "A land where rail- 
roads are unknown, where streets are never laid nor roads built 
to connect one settlement with another ; a country where horses 
and cows are less known than are the rhinoceros and zebra to the 
inhabitants of the United States; a region where even canned 
milk is a luxury and candy is seldom seen." 

On all the desolate coast of Labrador, extending over eight 
degrees of latitude, not a doctor nor a trained nurse, not a hos- 
pital nor a dispensary, not even a health officer, was to be found. 
Eskimo and Indian, German and Briton, halfbreed and white, 
hunter and fisherman, fell victims to the dreaded scourge, which 
traveled with rapidity. Whole settlements were left without a 
single survivor — the unburied corpses being devoured by half- 
starved dogs. This is the story that came out of the "silent 
North" — the most gruesome, most awful, tale of disease and death 
that the world has heard in many a day ! 

Following the outbreak of the scourge in Germany it was next 
heard of in Spain, where it received the name "Spanish influ- 
enza". This is really a misnomer, but it has stuck, probably 
because the disease to which it was applied was the first epidemic 
of influenza Spain had ever experienced. This name accompanied 
the disease to the United States, where, by some slangologists, it 
was early transmogrified into "flu" — by which appellation it has 
been pretty commonly designated. 

The scourge invaded Pennsylvania about the middle of Sep- 
tember, 1918, simultaneously attacking widely-separated com- 
munities. On October i the Department of Health of the Com- 
monwealth issued orders directing the closing of all moving- 



Page six. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



picture houses, theaters and places of amusement in general; 
that public assemblages be discontinued ; that funerals be privately 
conducted ; that all bar-rooms and wholesale liquor establishments 
be closed. The matter of closing schools, churches and Sunday- 
schools was left to the discretion of local authorities. In addi- 
tion, the Department issued proclamations and appeals for hearty 
co-operation on the part of the general public in checking the 
ravages of the scourge. 

In Wilkes-Barre on October 3, 4 and 5 the directions and 
appeals of the State Department of Health were promptly and 
cheerfully compHed with (even clubs and the various fraternal 
orders and societies observing the mandates, while the sessions of 
the Courts of Luzerne County for the week beginning October 7 
were continued and postponed), although on the first day of the 
appearance of the disease here only twenty cases were officially 
reported. 

Owing to the absence of many local physicians and trained 
nurses in the military and naval services of the United States, 
Wyoming Valley Chapter of the Red Cross issued an appeal on 
October 3 for trained nurses and for women with some nursing 
experience to register with the Chapter for service in combating 
the disease here. 

Under the date of October 8 the Commissioner of Health of 
Pennsylvania issued a circular letter to Department of Health 
and other physicians "engaged in the State-wide organization 
against the Influenza Epidemic," in which, among other things, 
the following information and instructions were set forth : 

"From close observation of the progress of the pandemic of influenza 
which is now sweeping upon us from the Atlantic seaboard, it has been 
decided by the Governor of this Commonwealth, the Commissioner of 
Health and the Advisory Board of the Pennsylvania Department of Health 
to use the organization at hand, and all available organizations that will 
co-operate to the utmost, in an effort to save the lives of our people. 
Accordingly, after careful thought, the following [among other] plans 
have been adopted : 

"The State Department of Health to be in absolute control and take 
full responsibility. 

"The formation of nineteen Epidemic Emergency Districts, with a repre- 
sentative of the Department in full charge of each district, takino- his 
orders directly from the Commissioner of Health and transmitting them 
to those who answer the call. 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page seven. 



"Appeals to all Health, Patriotic, Civic, Religious, Business and Social 
organizations, such as the Red Cross (graduates in elementary hygiene 
and home care of the sick, or first aid). Associated Charities, Boards of 
Health, Mayors, Councils, County Commissioners, Directors of the Poor, 
Boards of Trade, Church Societies, Fraternal Orders, Women's Clubs, 
Boy Scouts, Motor Messenger Corps, trained nurses, practical attendants, 
lay workers and volunteer automobilists, to lend all possible assistance 
under the direction of the Department. 

"The Adjutant General has placed the entire State Guard, and all the 
equipment of his department, at our disposal for the erection of emergency 
hospitals, furnishing of supplies, safe-guarding of property and the main- 
tenance of discipline. 

"Requests for aid from stricken communities should be made to the 
nearest representative of the Department, who will refer them to the 
physician in charge of the Epidemic Emergency District. This includes 
calls for doctors, nurses, aids, materials and any other form of relief. The 
Department will make a supreme effort to satisfy all such needs as rapidly 
as possible. However, where these are at hand, they should be obtained 
locally. * * * 

"All attendants should wear masks. * * * 

"Treatment of Influenza and Pneumonia. * * *" 

In furthering the foregoing plans and regulations Dr. Charles 
H. Miner of Wilkes-Barre, who was at that time, and had been 
for ten years, County Medical Inspector of the State Department 
of Health for Luzerne County, was appointed on October 8, by the 
Acting Commissioner of Health (Dr. B. Franklin Royer), "to 
take full charge of the organization and co-ordination of all 
work in District No. 5," composed of Luzerne and Columbia 
Counties, with headquarters at Wilkes-Barre. 

The same day the Acting Commissioner telephoned from Har- 
risburg to the County Medical Inspector at Wilkes-Barre, inform- 
ing the latter of his appointment as aforementioned, and asking 
him to request Maj. Gen. C. B. Dougherty of Wilkes-Barre to 
aid him in arranging and setting forward plans for the proper 
handling of the situation in the 5th District. 

General Dougherty responded promptly to the call for his ser- 
vices, and he and the County Medical Inspector soon concluded, 
in view of the fact that the regular and permanent hospitals 
located in the 5th District were just about "crowded to their 
limits" with influenza and pneumonic patients, and that the new 
cases reported each day in the various communities were becom- 
ing more numerous, that it would be necessary to establish and 
equip several emergency hospitals. 



Page eight. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



It was decided to establish an Emergency Hospital in Wilkes- 
Barre (where, on October 8, sixty new cases of influenza had 
been reported to the County Medical Inspector) , and the armory 
of the 9th Regiment, National Guard of Pennsylvania, located on 
South Main Street, was selected for the purpose. 

For some time then the 2d Infantry, Pennsylvania Reserve 
Militia (Col. S. E. W. Eyer commanding), had occupied the 
armory as its headquarters. On October 8 Colonel Eyer turned 
over the armory to the representatives of the Department of 
Health, and immediately, under the direction and supervision of 
General Dougherty, the work of thoroughly scrubbing and clean- 
ing the building from top to bottom was begun and was rapidly 
completed. Then the Shepherd Construction Company of Wilkes- 
Barre began the erection of four wards on the drill floor of the 
armory. 

Each of these wards was 21x27 feet in area by 10 feet in height, 
the walls, or partitions, being constructed of hemlock studding 
covered with beaver board. Each ward had a capacity of fifteen 
cots,* whereby ample air space was allowed for each patient. 
Considerable plumbing work had to be installed in order to facili- 
tate the efforts of nurses and attendants in giving proper care and 
attention to the hospital patients. This plumbing work, when 
completed, represented an outlay of $605.49. Also, the lighting 
facilities of the armory not being sufficient, it was necessary to 
install additional wiring and lights throughout the entire building, 
which was done at an expense of $190. 

The basement of the armory was transformed into a com- 
modious and comfortable dining-room; the kitchen was painted 
white, made sanitary in every respect, and its floor was covered 
with oil-cloth, while gas ranges were connected and refrigerators 
were installed. A diet kitchen (separate from the main kitchen) 
was established convenient to the main floor of the armory. 

On the evening of October 9, upon invitation of the County 
Medical Inspector, the following-named ladies and gentlemen 
assembled in the auditorium of the Wilkes-Barre Chamber 

*This arrangement provided accommodations for sixty patients, which, later on 
were found to be insufficient to meet the demands for admission to the hospital' 
whereupon four more wards of the same dimensions and materials were erected* 
These wards, when completed, gave the hospital eight wards with a total capacity of 
120 beds. Of these eight wards six were used for patients in general as admitted one 
was used as an isolation ward (where patients in the last stage of pneumonia were 
placed), and one was used as a ward for convalescents. 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page nine. 



of Commerce, "for the purpose of taking steps for com- 
bating influenza": Dr. Charles H. Miner, Dr. S. P. Mengel, 
Dr. G. A. Clark, Dr. E. L. Meyers, Dr. Charles Long, 
Gen. C. B. Dougherty, Col. S. E. W. Eyer, Lewis P. 
Kniffen, E. E. Matthews, Anthony C. Campbell, M. J. Mc- 
Laughhn, John D. Farnham, M. H. Sigafoos, Maj. E. N. 
Carpenter, William H. Conyngham, Frederick E. Zerbey, George 
J. Hartman, Hayden Williams, Mrs. C. H. Miner, Mrs. E. Birney 
Carr and Miss Josephine Tracy of Wilkes-Barre ; Dr. W. B. 
Strieker, Dr. J. Hughes, Michael Douk, T. A. Butkiewicz, C. J. 
Donahey, John Badman and F. H. Kohlbraker of Nanticoke; 
R. Alvan Beisel of Hazleton ; Mrs. W. A. Lathrop of Dorrance- 
ton ; Dr. J. A. Hilbert, Miss Esther J. Tinsley, Dr. S. L. Under- 
wood and William J. Peck of Pittston; R. A. Mulhall of West 
Pittston ; Dr. S. B. Arment of Bloomsburg; Dr. D. H. Lake, S. H. 
Hicks and W. B. Crane of Kingston. 

General Dougherty was called upon to preside, and Hayden 
Williams, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, acted as Sec- 
retary of the meeting. 

The County Medical Inspector spoke at great length with re- 
spect to the work already done in the 5th District to combat the 
pandemic — referring particularly to the emergency hospital which 
had been established at Wanamie, in Newport Township, Luzerne 
County, and to the preparations being made for the opening of the 
Armory Emergency Hospital in Wilkes-Barre. He stated that he 
had divided the 5th District into five sub-districts, with Dr. S. B. 
Arment in charge of the work in Columbia County, Dr. J. W. 
Leckie in charge of the Hazleton sub-district, Dr. W. B. Strieker 
in charge of a district extending from Nanticoke south to the 
Columbia County line. Dr. S. L. Underwood in charge of a dis- 
trict extending from the borough of Wyoming to the Lackawanna 
County line, while he, himself, in addition to a general supervision 
of affairs in the 5th District, had assumed charge of the work in 
the territory extending from Wyoming to Nanticoke. He sug- 
gested that committees on automobiles, food, drugs and general 
hospital supplies should be appointed. 

General Dougherty gave an account of the serious conditions 
existing at Minersville and Shamokin in the 3d District, adjoining 
the 5th District. Dr. Underwood and Miss Tinsley spoke of con- 



Page ten. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



ditions in Exeter, Luzerne County, where nearly 300 cases then 
existed. They reported that there were 182 cases in 62 homes ; 
that 98 patients were convalescing; that 10 families were in dire 
need of help, and that there was a special urgency for women to 
help in the house- work of afflicted famiHes. 

Dr. Hughes said that there were 400 cases at Glen Lyon and 
Wanamie in Newport Township; that sanitary conditions were 
bad; that there was a lack of nurses, and that the high-school 
building at Wanamie had just been converted into an emergency 
hospital. 

Dr. G. A. Clark, head of the Wilkes-Barre City Health Depart- 
ment, stated that about 200 cases had been reported in the city, 
and that the municipality would bear its proper share of the 
expense incurred in efforts to check the disease. 

Dr. Lake stated that there were 36 cases in Kingston and 40 in 
Edwards ville, and that there had been two or three deaths from 
the disease. In one home in Edwardsville there were seven cases. 
He declared that the closing of the schools had helped somewhat 
in checking the spread of the disease, and that considerable good 
could be accomplished if Toby's Creek, which had never been 
cleaned, were placed in a sanitary condition. 

Dr. Arment stated that conditions in Catawissa, Columbia 
County, were bad ; that a hospital was needed there, but it was 
impossible to procure nurses. Six deaths had occurred thus far 
in that locality, and the disease seemed to be spreading. He sug- 
gested that the school-houses in Bloomsburg be converted into 
emergency hospitals, and reported that the saloons in Centralia 
were wide open and doing business as usual. 

W. H. Conyngham, representing Wyoming Valley Chapter of 
the American Red Cross, stated that his organization had no 
funds with which to pay nurses, but that the members of the 
Chapter stood ready to do anything in their power to combat the 
disease. 

Dr. Mengel, Chief Surgeon of The Lehigh Valley Coal Com- 
pany, placed the nurses of that organization at the disposal of 
the community, and suggested that school teachers should be 
employed to help in the work of caring for the sick. 

Mrs. E. Birney Carr reported that the Canteen Service of the 
Wyoming Valley Chapter of the Red Cross would render all the 
assistance possible, while Mr. McLaughlin, one of the Commis- 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page eleven. 



Lioners of Luzerne County, gave assurance that the County would 
render any assistance possible to help stamp out the disease 

The Secretary of the Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Commerce 
volunteered the assistance of the Chamber's stafif in handling all 
details of the work connected with the campaign. Dr. Charles 
Long suggested that an effort be made to secure financial and 
other assistance from the Board of Directors of the Central Poor 
District of Luzerne County. 

Anthony C. Campbell, Esq., County Fuel Administrator, told 
of the serious conditions with respect to the mining industry in 
the 5th District, and declared that the output of anthracite coal 
was being seriously affected by the pandemic. On motion of Mr. 
Campbell it was then unanimously voted : That such emergency 
hospitals as the County Medical Inspector deemed necessary be 
established, that those in charge of the work incident to combating 
the influenza-pneumonia scourge should call upon the Board of 
Directors of the Central Poor District, County officials and the 
various municipal officers in the 5th District for financial assist- 
ance in defraying such expenses as may be necessarily incurred in 
carrying on their work, and that the County Medical Inspector be 
given any and all assistance required. 

The meeting then adjourned, and within a day or two there- 
biitr the County Medical Inspector announced the appointment 
of various committees "to cooperate with the State Department 
of Health in the 5th District with respect to the influenza 
epidemic," as follows : 

General Committee. — To have general supervision over the 
hospitals established. To provide ways and means, and secure 
appropriations and financial aid from the several municipalities. 
All funds raised, except State funds, to be placed in the hands of 
the Treasurer of the General Committee. All expenditures to be 
approved by the General Committee and its Chairman. 

Maj. Gen. C. B. Dougherty (representing the Susquehanna 
Collieries Co.), Chairman; Hayden Williams (representing the 
Chamber of Commerce), Secretary; M. J. McLaughlin (County 
Commissioner ),Wm.H.Conyngham (Red Cross), Lewis P. Knif- 
fen (City Council), R. Nelson Bennett (City Council), Wm. C. 
Shepherd (Chamber of Commerce), J. L. Reilly (Central Poor 
District), Dr. S. P. Mengel (Lehigh Valley Coal Co.), Dr. G. A. 
Clark (City Health Board), Dr. E. L. Meyers (School Board), 



Page twelve. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Miss Mary Trescott (School Board), F. H. Kohlbraker (Susque- 
hanna ColHeries Co.), Dr. J. W. Geist (Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre 
Coal Co.), Frederick E. Zerbey (Kingston Coal Co.), Samuel T. 
Nicholson (Vulcan Iron Works), M. H. Sigafoos (Hazard Man- 
ufacturing Co.), Fred. H. Gates (City Clerk), and Fuller R. Hen- 
dershot (County Controller). 

Emergency Hospital Committee. — This committee to have 
general charge of the establishment of emergency hospitals and 
direct their conduct and care, including arrangements for and 
maintenance of subsistence for patients and help. 

Dr. S. P. Mengel of Wilkes-Barre, Chairman; Drs. Lewis H. 
Taylor, W. S. Stewart and L. A. Sheridan of Wilkes-Barre, Dr. 
Cohen of Berwick, Dr. H. B. Wilcox of Kingston, Dr. H. Whit- 
ney of Plymouth, Dr. H. J. Lenahan of Pittston, Dr. Jesse 
Hughes of Nanticoke, Dr. J. H. Bruner of Bloomsburg, and Dr. 
Walter Lathrop of Hazleton. 

Canteen Relief Committee. — This committee to have charge 
of the preparation of food, and the preparation of the same for 
transportation to outside patients at their homes — this transporta- 
tion to be provided by the Motor Transportation Committee. 

The ladies of the Red Cross Canteen Service are to compose 
this Relief Committee, with Mrs. E. Birney Carr as Chairman. 

Armory Hospital Committee. — This committee, under the 
direction of the Emergency Hospital Committee, to have charge 
of the care and maintenance of sanitary conditions of the Armory, 
and to provide for the disposal of refuse. 

Col. S. E. W. Eyer, Chairman; Capt. Robert R. Harvey, Lieut. 
Charles E. Trein, Lieut. Robert D. Raeder, Harry W. French, 
and Wayne Canfield. 

The medical staff for the Armory Hospital to consist of : Drs. 
W. Clive Smith, D. S. Kistler, Parke Sickler, Charles Long, 
John T. Howell, Allan C. Brooks, E. J. Flanagan, J. B. Tobias, 
Maurice B. Ahlborn, Herbert B. Gibby and Walter B. Foss, and 
their duties being to act as aids to the Superintendent of the 
Emergency Hospital, and to accept assignments for service from 
time to time as the demands may require — the schedule of this 
service to be arranged by the Chairman of the Emergency Hospi- 
tal Committee, with a minimum demand on the time of the Staff 
Physicians, and only as the exigencies required. 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page thirteen. 



Motor Transportation CoAmiTTEE. — This committee to have 
charge of the motor transportation for the transfer of nurses 
from hospitals and patients to and from the homes of the sick. 
Under this committee a sub-committee of men to be organized to 
arrange for the transportation of food to homes. 

Mrs. W. A. Lathrop, Chairman; Mrs. Lawrence B. Jones, Mrs. 
Robert A. Quin, Miss Caroline Marcy, Stephen Pettebone and 
Frank F. Matheson. 

Nurses' Aid Committee. — This committee to have charge of 
the selection and recruiting of all trained nurses, Red Cross nurses 
and volunteer nurses for the Emergency Hospitals, and visiting 
nurses for homes. 

Mrs. Charles H. Miner, Chairman; Mrs. J. Pryor Williamson, 
Mrs. Charles P. Elliott, Mrs. Paul Bedford, Mrs. Wm. H. Con- 
yngham, Mrs. Charles P. Hunt, Mrs. E. Byron Strome, Mrs. 
E. B. Wagner, Miss C. L. Best, Miss Ethel Sturdevant, Miss 
Margaret Bevans, Miss Georgia Grossman, Miss Clara Treglawn, 
Miss Ruth Williams, Miss Corrigan, Miss Ruth Benscoter and 
Miss Isabelle Cairns. 

Drug Store Committtee. — This committee to organize the 
drug stores, and have them provide and keep in stock such medi- 
cines and medical goods as will be required for the Emergency 
Hospitals. Also, to secure and provide a stock of drugs and 
supplies for the Emergency Hospitals. 

Louis Frank, Chairman; Edward H. White, Lieut. Charles E, 
Trein and Henry W. Merritt. 

Luzerne County Cooperation Committee — This commit- 
tee, representing the municipal governments and the Boards of 
Health in their respective districts, to cooperate with the General 
Committee by organizing in their towns a house to house census, 
and report all cases of influenza and sickness to the Chairman of 
the General Committee, and to aid and cooperate in every way to 
prevent the spread of the disease. This committee to be subject 
to the call of the General Committee for conference, as well as 
the other committees. Community Captains to report to Com- 
munity Chairmen, the latter to report to District Chairmen, and 
they to report daily to the General Chairman of the Cooperation 
Committee. The latter to report daily to Dr. Miner, representing 
the State Department of Health. 



Page fourteen. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Percy A. Brown, Wilkes-Barre, General Chairman; Hayden 
Williams, Wilkes-Barre, General Secretary; Dr. Joseph Dough- 
erty and Frank McQuown, Ashley ; William G. Rowett and CHf- 
ford Edwards, Courtdale ; Louis Jacobs and William Mundy, 
Exeter; William Evans and William A. Wallace, Forty Fort; 
Dr. D. H. Lake and Rush Trescott, Kingston ; John Doran and 
Edward Lawler, Larksville ; George Knarr and R. J. Blair, Luz- 
erne ; Dr. F. E. Davis and William Oldfield, Nanticoke ; 
O. O. Eisenhower and Harry Brown, Dorranceton ; James Doran, 
Parsons ; Dr. H. Templeton and George E. Gwilliam, Plymouth, 
and Dr. Milton Barton, Plains. 

General Headquarters — Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of 
Commerce, Miners Bank Building, Wilkes-Barre. 

Luzerne County District Chairmen. — District No. i, Henry 
W. Ruggles, Dorranceton; District No. 2, H. L. Freeman, Plym- 
outh ; District No. 3, G. D. Stroh, West Pittston ; District No. 4, 
Joseph M. Stark, Hudson; District No. 5, Rev. F. Kasaczun, 
Sugar Notch ; District No. 6, E. B. Wesley, Nanticoke ; District 
No. 7, Harry A. Schmoll, Hazleton. 

District No. i, composed of the boroughs and hamlets of Court- 
dale, Dallas, Dorranceton, Exeter, Forty Fort, Kingston, Luzerne, 
Pringle, Shavertown, Swoyerville, Trucksville, West Pittston, 
Wyoming and West Wyoming, and the townships of Kingston, 
Franklin, Exeter and Dallas. 

District No. 2, composed of the boroughs of Edwardsville, 
Larksville, Plymouth and Shickshinny, and the townships of 
Fairmount, Hunlock, Huntington, Jackson, Lake, Lehman, Plym- 
outh, Ross, Salem and Union. 

District N o. 3, composed of the city and township of Pittston, 
and the boroughs of Avoca, Dupont, Duryea and Hughestown. 

District No. 4, composed of the boroughs of Laflin, Miner's 
Mills, Parsons and Yatesville, and the townships of Jenkins and 
Plains. 

District No. 3, composed of the boroughs of Ashley, Laurel 
Run, Nuangola, Sugar Notch and Warrior Run, and the town- 
ships of Wilkes-Barre, Fairview, Bear Creek, Buck, Wright, 
Slocum and Denison. . 

District No. 6, composed of the borough of Nanticoke, the vil- 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page fifteen. 



lage of Macanaqua, the borough and township of Nescopeck, and 
the townships of Conyngham, Dorrance, Hollenback, Newport 
and Slocum. 

District No. 7, composed of the city of Hazleton and al> terri- 
tory contiguous thereto. 

The following rules, governing the "operation of community 
organizations and the duties of each organization unit," were 
promulgated : 

"i. Community Chairman. — Shall act as Chairman of the Executive 
Committee and be responsible for the operation of each unit. Receive 
reports daily from all subordinates, and report daily to the Chairman of 
the District in which the community is situated. 

"2. Executive Committee. — To meet and work only under direction of 
the Community Chairman. This committee shall assist the Community 
Chairman in carrying out all rules and regulations. 

"3. Secretary. — To have some one constantly on duty at the Emergency 
Station. Keep a record of all cases and any other information required. 
Prepare a daily report for Community Chairman, also receive all calls for 
nurses, canteen service, medical attention when physicians are overworked, 
and be in a position at all times to furnish accurate information. It is 
preferred that a school teacher be engaged to assist the Secretary. 

"4, Emergency Station. — To be centrally and conveniently located. 
To be equipped with a telephone for use by the Secretary and other 
officials. To be open during business hours. 

"5. Community Captains. — Under the direction of the Community 
Chairman and Executive Committee a Captain shall be appointed for each 
community. In case of an unusually long street, the number of Captains 
for said street may be increased. Captains will make a daily tour of their 
streets, and report daily to the Community Chairman, through the Secre- 
tary at the Emergency Station, the number of new cases, deaths and dis- 
charged cases. Captains will also note sanitary conditions and conditions 
in general, and aid in eliminating any condition that may cause a spread 
of disease. Captains will also report any cases needing medical attention 
or a nurse. 

"6. Nursing Bureau. — To be located at the Emergency Station and 
be under the direction of Red Cross workers. Here a record should be 
kept of every woman who volunteers as a nurse or nurse's assistant. From 
this Bureau should also be supplied gowns and masks to protect nurses 
when they go into the homes of the sick. 

"7. Canteen Service. — To distribute food for the sick in homes where 
food is needed. Care should be exercised to see that this service is not 
abused. The Canteen should be established preferably in a church kitchen, 
and here should be prepared soup or broth to be distributed in jars or 
pails to the doors of the homes from which calls have been received. 



Page sixteen. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



"8. Automobile Service. — Secure one car or truck daily for service at 
the Canteen, and other machines to carry nurses and physicians to homes 
of patients when necessary. 

"9. Publicity Bureau. — To assume charge of distributing leaflets in 
different languages, disseminate general information, and assist through 
publicity in bringing about enforcement of all health regulations. 

"MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 

"Impress every membe of the community organization with the serious- 
ness of the situation, and make each one responsible toward having people 
obey all instructions. 

"Remember that it is easier to prevent an epidemic than to stop one 
when conditions become dangerous. 

"Don't frighten people about the situation, but constantly prevail upon 
them to be careful in not exposing themselves to disease or spreading it. 

"Permit no public gatherings or large groups on street corners, in 
stores, etc. 

"Permit no public funerals, and have a police or health officer attend all 
funerals to enforce the law in this respect. 
"Let 'Safety First' be the motto of all people. 

"It is especially requested that all schools and churches be closed." 

In pursuance of the resolution adopted at the meeting held in 
the Chamber of Commerce on October 9, as aforementioned, Dr. 
Miner gave directions for the establishing of emergency hospitals 
at the following-named places — in addition to those already ar- 
ranged for at Wanamie and in the Armory at Wilkes-Barre : 
Catawissa, Exeter, Hazleton, Dupont, Nanticoke and Plains.* 

On October 10 the first emergency hospital was opened, in the 
Central High School building at Wanamie, with Dr. William H. 
Corrigan physician in charge and Miss Emily G. Jones, Graduate 
Nurse, as chief nurse. The same day the emergency hospital at 
Catawissa was opened, with Dr. S. B. Arment physician in charge 
and Miss Hannah C. Breisch, Graduate Nurse, as chief nurse. 
On October 1 1 the third emergency hospital was opened, in the 
High School building at Exeter, with Dr. James Dixon physician 
in charge and Miss Jessie Cunningham and Mrs. Ernest W. 
Hogg, Graduate Nurses, as chief nurses. 

Dr. Elmer L. Hinman , having been sent to Wilkes-Barre by 

*At this time the regular, or permanently established, hospitals located in the 
Sth District were as follows: Wilkes-Barre City, Mercy, Wyoming Valley Homceo- 
pathic and Riverside Hospitals in Wilkes-Barre; Nesbitt West Side Hospital Dor- 
ranceton; Pittston Hospital, Pittston; Berwick Hospital, Berwick, Columbia County 
State Hospital of the Middle Coal Fie'd of Pennsylvania, Hazleton; Stsilte Hospital' 
Nanticoke; Bloomsburg Hospital, Bloomsburg, Columbia County. ' 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page seventeen. 



Dr. Royal S. Copeland, Commissioner of the Health Department 
of the city of New York, reported to the County Medical Inspec- 
tor for duty on October 12, and was assigned to the Wanamie 
Emergency Hospital to assist Dr. Corrigan. 

At this time it was estimated that there were at least 1,000 
influenza and pneumonia cases, reported and unreported, in 
Wilkes-Bar re — new cases appearing at the rate of nearly 100 per 
day. The Wilkes-Barre City Hospital refused, because of lack 
of room and nurses, to receive any more cases. Nurses and 
doctors everywhere were overworked, and the situation at Glen 
Lyon (in Newport Township) and in Hazleton and its vicinity 
was appalling. 

In the afternoon of October 12 a meeting of Chairmen of 
committees and Division Chairman was held with the County 
Medical Inspector at the rooms of the Chamber of Commerce, 
when it was decided that trucks should be secured for the purpose 
of delivering food daily to the homes of the sick, where such ser- 
vice was needed. Whereupon Percy A. Brown and Frank F. 
Matheson each ofifered trucks for this purpose. It was suggested 
that Mrs. P. J. Higgins of Wilkes-Barre should be placed in 
charge of the cooking at the Armory canteen — the necessary 
arrangements for this service, however, to be left in the hands of 
the Canteen Committee. 

Dr. Mengel suggested that a telegram be sent to the proper 
authorities at Washington, urging them to leave here, during the 
progress of the epidemic, all Red Cross nurses now in this 
vicinity. General Dougherty reported that he had communicated 
with the Hon. A. Mitchell Palmer and other Government officials 
at Washington relative to having army surgeons sent here from 
Camp Crane, Allentown, Pennsylvania, and he had been assured 
that ten officers of the Medical Department would be sent. 

Dr. S. M. Wolfe of Wilkes-Barre, who had recently returned 
from Massachusetts, where he had assisted in combating the 
epidemic, told of the various organized methods and plans pur- 
sued in dealing with the disease in that State. 

Mr. William J, Ruff, Cashier of the Luzerne County National 
Bank, Wilkes-Barre, was then elected Treasurer of the General 
Committee. 

At the close of this meeting General Dougherty telegraphed to 
Maj. Gen. Rupert Blue, Surgeon General, U. S. A., Dr. H. A. 



Page eighteen. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Garfield, U. S. Fuel Administrator, and Miss Carrie Noyes, 
Director of Field Nursing, American Red Cross, at Washington, 
D. C, as follows : 

"The following Red Cross nurses have been called to leave for service 
on Tuesday, October 15 : Miss Edith Evans, Miss Elsie Banker and Mrs. 
Lena Krum of Wilkes-Barre ; Miss Hazel Smith of Tunkhannock, Pa., 
and Miss Bessie Evans of Kingston, Pa. The influenza situation in 
Wyoming Valley is of such a serious nature, and there is such a dearth of 
nurses, that, as Chairman of the General Committee of Wyoming Valley 
(whose efforts are being directed toward the stamping out of this pesti- 
lence, in order to conserve the lives of our citizens and thus maintain the 
production of anthracite coal, which is now seriously affected by the pre- 
vailing sickness), I appeal to you to direct these nurses to remain here to 
take up their duties in emergency hospitals now being estabhshed. 1 trust 
that this appeal will be fully appreciated by you. We are fearfully short 
of nurses as well as doctors. We can use a great many physicians and 
nurses." 

On October 13 the following-named medical officers from 
Camp Crane arrived at Wilkes-Barre, and were assigned to duty 
by Dr. Miner, as noted: Capt. E. L. Hendricks, U. S. Marine 
Corps, and Lieut. C. F. Bahler, to Glen Lyon ; Lieut. Joseph Gold- 
stone, U. S. Marine Corps, to Bloomsburg ; Lieut. G. T. Meek to 
Exeter, and Lieut. J. A. M. Aspy to Hazleton, 

At a meeting of the General Committee held in the auditorium 
of the Chamber of Commerce on Tuesday, October 15, General 
Dougherty presented a report relative to conditions at Shamokin 
and Minersville (in the 3d District), where there were 4,000 cases 
of the "flu". Col. Eyer reported on the work being done at the 
Armory to fit it for hospital purposes, and Dr. Miner stated that 
the Armory Emergency Hospital would be ready for the recep- 
tion of patients at noon on the following day. 

The Rev. John J. McCabe, of St. Joseph's R. C. Church, 
Georgetown, told of conditions in Wilkes-Barre Township, where, 
he said, there were 80 cases of the disease. Dr. Hughes stated 
that there were about 585 cases in Newport Township and 
vicinity, and Richard Sheridan reported that there were possibly 
over 200 cases in Nanticoke. 

On motion of the Rev. Mr. McCabe the Chairman named Dr. 
C. H. Miner, the Rev. J. F. Jedlicka and Dr. E. L. Meyers as a 
committee to confer with the Controller and Commissioners of 
Luzerne County, and the Directors of the Central Poor District, 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page nineteen. 



for the purpose of securing financial aid in fighting the epidemic. 
Controller Hendershot, who was present, stated that he would do 
everything in his power to co-operate with the General Commit- 
tee in its work. James L. Reilly, Secretary of the Central District 
Poor Board, who was present, stated that he felt sure the Poor 
Board would co-operate with the Committee. 

Frederick E. Zerbey, Superintendent of the Kingston Coal 
Company, offered the use of the ambulances of that company to 
convey patients from the west side of the river. 

General Dougherty stated that the State would pay for doctors, 
nurses, tents, cots, blankets, sheets, etc., employed and used in 
combating the epidemic, but that all other service would have to 
be paid for with funds derived from other sources. 

On October 16 the Hazleton Emergency Hospital was opened 
in the building of St. Gabriel's High School, Hazleton, with Lieut. 
J. A. M. Aspy physician in charge and Miss Ruth B. Rae, Grad- 
uate Nurse, from the Department of Health, as chief nurse. 
(Later, Miss Rae was stricken with the "flu" and was succeeded 
as chief nurse by the Mother Superior of St. Gabriel's, who was 
a professional nurse. On October 25 Lieutenant Aspy returned 
to Camp Crane, and was succeeded by Dr. J. W. Leckie as physi- 
cian in charge at Hazleton.) 

On October 12 the Armory Emergency Hospital at Wilkes- 
Barre was ready with four wards for the reception of patients. 
Lack of nurses, however, delayed the opening of the hospital 
until Wednesday, October 16, when, with Capt. E. L. Hendricks, 
U. S. M. C, as physician in charge, and Mrs. J. Pryor William- 
son of Wilkes-Barre, Graduate Nurse, as chief nurse, the doors 
were opened at one o'clock p. m. for the reception of patients. 
During the afternoon six female and five male patients from 
Wilkes-Barre, Nanticoke, Parsons and Miner's Mills were re- 
ceived, and on the following day eleven males and seven females 
were received from Wilkes-Barre, Edwardsville, Plymouth, 
Miner's Mills, Maltby, Nanticoke and Forty Fort. 

The sixth Emergency Hospital in the 5th District was opened 
on October 17 in the Pulaski School building at Dupont, Luzerne 
County, with Dr. W. S. Helman of Avoca as visiting physician 
and Miss Herman, Graduate Nurse, as chief nurse. (Dr. Hel- 
man was succeeded on November 9 by Dr. James S. Dixon, and 



Page twenty. 



Miss Herman was succeeded on November 19 by Miss Bessie 
Fadden.) 

The seventh Emergency Hospital was opened on October 17 m 
the Washington School building at Nanticoke, Luzerne County, 
with Dr. Elmer L. Hinman in charge and Miss Olwen Williams, 
Graduate Nurse, as chief nurse. (Dr. Hinman returned to New 
York City on October 26, and was succeeded by Lieut. C. E. 
Yates.) 

On October 17 two medical students, Messrs. J. A. Post and 
W. R. Stewart, of the University of Buffalo, reported to the 
County Medical Inspector at Wilkes-Barre to help out with the 
work of the 5th District. Mr. Stewart was assigned to assist Dr. 
Corrigan at the Wanamie Hospital, and Mr. Post was assigned to 
the Exeter, and subsequently to the Plains, Emergency Hospital. 

The same day the following-named Army Surgeons arrived at 
Wilkes-Barre and were assigned to the Hazleton District : Cap- 
tains Davenport and Danfort to work at Jeddo ; Captain Brown 
at Cranberry; Captain Wroth at Lattimer and Major Wyer in 
Hazleton. On October 19, however, all these Surgeons were 
ofdered to return to Camp Crane, Allentown. 

On October 18 a largely-attended meeting of the General Com- 
mittee was held, with General Dougherty, Chairman, presiding. 
The latter outlined the objects and purposes in view with respect 
to the emergency hospitals which had been established, stating 
that only patients who could not receive proper attention at their 
homes should be sent to the hospitals. He also set forth the fact 
that there was a very great shortage of doctors and nurses in this 
District, and called upon Miss Nellie G. Loftus, the State nurse 
in charge of the nurses in this section, to make a statement as to 
conditions here. This she did, setting forth that there were thirty 
graduate nurses in the 5th District, five or six of whom were not 
in active service on account of illness. There were also eleven 
practical nurses in the District, but at least fifty more graduate 
nurses could, and should, be placed in service immediately. 

Mr. W. C. Shepherd then made the following motion, which 
was adopted : 

"It is the sense of this meeting that all patriotic citizens will, in every 
case where possible so to do, release nurses from their private employ for 
the general good of the community. It is their patriotic duty to do this 
during the present grave emergency." 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page twenty-one. 



Mr. Percy A. Brown, Chairman of the Co-operation Commit- 
tee, stated that the territory in Luzerne County had been divided 
into forty sub-districts, and that he had arranged to have an 
organization in each sub-district. Thirty-two of the forty organ- 
izations had already reported to him. He suggested that leaflets, 
containing brief and simple rules for avoiding influenza and for 
the care of the sick, be printed in several foreign languages, and 
widely distributed.* 

Mr. Brown also suggested that a fund be created from which 
money could be drawn to be used in paying some one in each sub- 
district to look after and report upon the sanitary and health con- 
ditions in that particular locality. 

Anthony C. Campbell, Esq., Fuel Administrator for this sec- 
tion of the State, stated that he had received reports from vari- 
ous large coal-mining companies, which had enabled him to pre- 
pare a statement showing that from 28,000 to 30,000 tons of coal 
had been lost to the industry on account of the influenza. 

On motion of Mr. W. C. Shepherd it was voted that all com- 
munities in this District be requested to organize committees on 
the plan endorsed or recommended by the State Board of Health. 
In pursuance of this motion Chairman Dougherty appointed 
Wm. C. Shepherd, Dr. Charles H. Miner, Dr. S. P. Mengel, Dr. 
E. L. Meyers, A. C. Campbell and Percy A. Brown a committee 
("Ways and Means Committee") to prepare a draft of the plan 
to be used for the guidance of the several communities in this 
matter. 

In pursuance of a motion made by Dr. Walter Davis the Chair- 
man appointed Dr. Davis, Dr. D. H. Lake, Dr. J. W. Geist and 
Miss Nellie G. Loftus a committee to report with respect to the 
systematic treatment of "flu" patients. 

On motion of Wm. H. Conyngham it was voted: "(i) that an 
effort be made to retain here the five nurses who are now in this 
community, but who have been ordered to return to Washington 
on October 26; (2) that the Chairman of the General Committee 
communicate by telegraph with the proper ofificials at Washington, 
expressing our desire to have retained here, until the situation is 
improved, the army doctors who are now in the field, or that 

*In pursuance of this suggestion a six-page leaflet was subsequently prepared and 
printed in English, Italian and three other languages, and was well distributed 
throughout the District. 



Page twenty-two. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



other doctors be sent to take their places, and that as many as can 
be furnished be sent." 

On October 20, at a meeting of the General and District Chair- 
men, in conjunction with the members of the Ways and Means 
Committee, the latter presented a plan for the organization of 
outlying communities. This plan was forthwith adopted and 
ordered to be printed and distributed among the officials of the 
various communities.* Fuel Conservator Campbell reported that 
he had telegraphed to Federal Fuel Administrator Garfield, 
urging him to use his influence to have the army doctors then 
here kept here. 

At this time the influenza and pneumonia conditions were "ap- 
palling" in certain localities in Luzerne County. At Glen Lyon, 
as well as at Georgetown in the township of Wilkes-Barre, the 
situation was very serious. An average of about 75 new cases 
per day in Wilkes-Barre was being reported, while all the 
emergency hospitals in the District were without sufficient help. 

On October 22 new cases in Wilkes-Barre to the number of 120 
were reported, while conditions in Glen Lyon, Nanticoke, Wan- 
amie and some other places in the 5th District were "desperate". 
On this date Dr. Miner and the Chairman of the General Com- 
mittee received the following communication, copies of which 
were immediately transmitted by them to the variolis emergency 
organizations in the 5th District. 

"October 20, 1918. 
"From : The Commissioner of Health of Pennsylvania. 
"To : All concerned with Problem of Nursing during the present Epidemic 
of Influenza. 

"Subject: Plan of Organization and Instructions. (General Order No. 2.) 



*This was subsequently done, in the following form: 

PLAN OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION FOR THE EPIDEMIC EMERGENCY. 

1. Community Chairman (President of Board of Health). 

2. Executive Committee, consisting of: 

A. P,oard of Health. 

B. Burgess and member of Borough or Township Council. 

C. Mine Superintendent and representative of labor union. 

D. Principal of schools. 

E. Red Cross Worker. 

F. Member of Council of National Defense. 

G. Clergyman. 

H. Prominent Citizen. 

I. Local Physician — principally in advisory capacity. 

3. Secretary. 

4. Emergency Station. 

5. Community Captains. 

6. Nursing Bureau. 

7. Canteen Service. 

8. Automobile Service. 

9. Publicity Bureau. 
10. Miscellaneous. 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page twenty-three. 



"As it is not yet fully realized that the present epidemic afflicting us in 
these war times has caused the greatest need, and at the same time is 
accompanied by the greatest scarcity, of graduate nurses that has ever 
occurred, it is necessary to form a plan which may be adapted to any 
situation, as one community after another becomes involved : 

"i. Graduate nurses must be used in such a way that their services be 
of assistance to the greatest number. This may be done by calling first 
upon all partially trained attendants, Red Cross workers, and then lay 
helpers, or any intelligent persons who are able to assist, and who will 
faithfully follow instructions. These latter must be instructed carefully 
in the essentials for treating patients, protecting themselves, and prevent- 
ing the spread of infection, and be directed to make a simple record of 
their work each day, while the graduate nurses must move about rapidly 
to cover as much territory as possible if the cases are in private homes or 
in small groups, supervising the work of subordinates, instructing these 
subordinates, and following up their work. If the graduate is assigned 
to a hospital, the same plan should be used, i. e., nurses or lay helpers 
detailed to small groups of patients, with the graduate in charge. Thus 
an active graduate and subordinates who obey orders with military pre- 
cision get actual results which cannot be obtained by attempts to furnish 
trained nurses to individual families or in quantity to hospitals. 

"2. It is imperative that the lives and health of physicians, nurses and 
lay workers be conserved for service to the vast number afflicted. Ac- 
cordingly in each hospital (emergency, tent-hospital or otherwise) or in 
each community which has been organized against the epidemic, a system 
should be devised to apportion the time and labor of all workers as equally 
as possible, according to the character of their work. All precautions 
against infection must be constantly observed, e. g., the wearing of gowns 
which cover the entire body; masks made by applying eight layers of sur- 
gical gauze, or two of butter cloth, to the convex surface of a wire tea- 
strainer about four inches in diameter, which is molded to fit the face 
from above the tip of the nose to below the point of the chin and secured 
to the head by tapes, (gauze changed every hour and boiled half an hour, 
sun dried and used over again) ; by the use of antiseptics, including care- 
ful cleansing of the hands after handling patients, before eating, etc., and 
care in destroying by burning or sterilizing infected material. 

"3. Strict discipline (semi-military) is essential for saving time and 
insuring accuracy in receiving and executing orders. All persona! differ- 
ences and likes and dislikes must be absolutely subordinated to the general 
need. Those in charge of others should exercise judgment in issuing 
orders to other subordinates, being careful to avoid anything which may 
be unnecessary or a repetition. Subordinates will observe instructions of 
their superiors without hesitation or argument. Courtesy at all times on 
the part of every one concerned will result in reaching most quickly the 
goal upon which our every efTort is bent — the checking, if possible, of 
this great t>uhlic disaster and minimizing its crippling effect and death toll. 

"4. Requests for aid from stricken communities should be made to 
the nearest representative of the Department of Health, who will refer 



Page twenty-four. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



it to the Physician in charge of the Emergency District. This includes 
calls for doctors, nurses, aids, materials and any other form of relief. 
The Department will make a supreme effort to satisfy all such needs as 
rapidly as possible. However, where these are at hand they should be 
obtained locally. 

"S. The best emergency hospital is the tent hospital, where the patient 
may obtain fresh air for twenty-four hours and receive sunlight by being 
hauled out into the company streets during the day. Wooden shacks or 
lean-tos (like those used in T. B. treatment), the walls of which may be 
raised by hinges and pulleys to admit the air and sunlight, are excellent. 
Buildings without balconies or porches should not be used unless there is 
adequate room or window space. Open air schools are almost ideal ; next 
to them are modern high schools with large grounds about them. Visitors 
should be excluded, except relatives of dying patients, who should wear 
gowns and masks during the visit. 

"6. Encourage the people of the cominunity who wish to do some- 
thing for the sufferers but cannot nurse them, to make masks, gowns and 
other supplies, also broths or other forms of nourishing food. Traveling 
kitchens or food delivered from a community kitchen by motor cars are of 
great assistance to stricken families. A County Committee should be 
formed for the purpose of investigating and promptly relieving distress, 
financial or otherwise. This committee could enable wage earners to 
remain at their employment. 

"7. All existing agencies (local government, organizations, societies, 
orders, etc.) should be co-ordinated so that there be no uncertainty or 
confusion as to what is needed and how to meet the need and no waste 
of personnel or repetition of instructions or starts upon unnecessary 
errands. 

"8. In each district, which may include several Counties, there is a 
physician in full charge of the district, with permanent headquarters. 
There is also a supervising nurse of the district, whose headquarters 
should be the same as the District Chief's, unless an emergency should 
make another arrangement desirable. All other Department officers are 
subordinates to these two representatives of the Medical and Nursing 
service respectively Reports by wire or 'phone are required daily at 
I p. m. from Supervising Nurse, District Chief, and from each County 
Inspector at the Epidemic Headquarters, Harrisburg. These officers should 
arrange that all of their subordinates in the district report to them at a 
convenient hour prior to this time. 

"9. It should be borne in mind that the District Chief and Supervising 
Nurse of each district are responsible for their entire district and cannot 
be spared too long in any one locality. Their movements will depend upon 
exigencies which may arise and orders from this office. 

"B. Franklin Royer. 
"Acting Commissioner of Health." 

On October 23 the eighth Emergency Hospital in the 5th Dis- 
trict was opened in the Maffet Street School building at Plains, 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page twenty-five. 



Luzerne County, with Miss May Conlon, Graduate Nurse, as 
chief nurse. 

On October 25 the following-named United States Army 
medical officers, who had been on duty in the 5th District, re- 
turned, under orders, to Camp Crane : Lieut. C. F. Bahler, Lieut. 
Joseph Goldstone, Lieut. G. T. Meek and Lieut. J. A. M. Aspy. 
Capt. E. L. Hendricks, being ill at Hotel Sterling, remained here 
some days longer. Upon the abovementioned date General 
Dougherty, Chairman of the General Committee, telegraphed to 
Gen. Peyton C. March, Chief of Staff, U. S. A., as follows : 

"By systematic organization and effort we have been endeavoring to 
combat Spanish Influenza in Luzerne County, with its population of 
350,000 souls. We had 300 registered physicians in the County, of whom 
115 have gone into the mihtary service. We has over 12,000 cases [of 
influenza] in the County, and have established, in addition to the regular 
hospitals, seven emergency hospitals. But three medical officers of those 
who were sent here from Camp Crane now remain. Six thousand mine 
workers are ill with the disease, thus reducing the daily output of anthra- 
cite coal 15,000 tons, or at the rate of 300,000 tons per month. We are 
informed that you have 4,000 medical officers in training at Camp Green- 
leaf. We must have twenty-five physicians sent here at once. Please give 
us this number of physicians, as the spread of the disease is increasing, 
and we must have medical assistance. Our doctors are exhausted." 

At a meeting of the General Committee held October 26 Chair- 
man Dougherty reported that the Commissioners of Luzerne 
County had appropriated $25,000. to be used in defraying the 
expenses incurred in combating the epidemic in Luzerne County.* 
It was the general opinion of the members of the committee 
present that this money should not be distributed among the 
various communities entitled to it until the end of the epidemic. 
It was pointed out, however, that several communities had already 
made applications for needed funds. It was finally decided that a 
committee composed of the Chairman and three other members 
of the General Committee should prepare, and report at a subse- 
quent meeting, a plan for the proper expenditure of the County 
appropriation. 

Colonel Eyer reported on conditions at the Armory Emergency 
Hospital, and stated that many of the patients who had died there 



*About this time the City Council of Wilkes-Barre made a special appropriation 
of $s,ooo. to be used in fighting the "flu" in the city. This sum was in addition to the 
regular annual appropriation for the city's Bureau of Health. 



Page twenty-six. THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



were practically in a dying condition when received into the 
hospital. At 9:20 o'clock P. M. the Committee adjourned and 
proceeded to the Lehigh Valley Railroad station, where the follow- 
ing-named United States Army medical officers were met upon 
their arrival from Camp Crane, Allentown, Pennsylvania, for 
epidemic work in Luzerne County, and were assigned to duty as 
herein noted. 

Capt. H. W. Dessaussure (in command) and Lieuts. E. J. 
Burke, E. Z. Brunner, L. H. Hills and J. B. McGuinness, to report 
to Dr. J. W. Leckie at the Hazleton Emergency Hospital ; Capts. 
E. B. Chenowith and Evan S. Evans, U. S. M. C, to the Wilkes- 
Barre Armory Hospital; Lieuts. Robert Funston and A. C. Hall 
to report to Dr. Strieker at Nanticoke ; Lieut. Frank F. Davis to 
report to Dr. Strieker for service at Glen Lyon ; Lieut. Leroy 
Fredericks to report to Dr. Strieker for service at the Wanamie 
Emergency Hospital ; Lieut. H. R. Lipscomb to be physician in 
charge at the Plains Emergency Hospital. 

On this date, according to a report submitted by the County 
Medical Inspector to the State department of Health, the number 
of influenza and pneumonia patients undergoing treatment in the 
various hospitals in the 5th District were as follows : Hazleton 
Emergency, 22 ; Exeter Emergency, 70 ; Dupont Emergency, 9 ; 
Wanamie Emergency, 55 ; Wilkes-Barre Armory Emergency, 46 ; 
Catawissa Emergency, 8; Plains Emergency, 19; Nanticoke 
Emergency, ? ; Hazleton State, 75 ; Nesbitt West Side, 14 ; Wyo- 
ming Valley Homoeopathic, 15; Nanticoke State, 13; Mercy, 30; 
Wilkes-Barre City, 64; Bloomsburg, 19; Berwick, 26. (Riverside 
Hospital, Wilkes-Barre, had received no "flu" patients.) 

On October 28 new cases in Luzerne County were reported as 
follows: Edwardsville, 40; Wilkes-Barre City, 98; Wilkes-Barre 
Township, 16; Larksville, 19; Plymouth Borough, 50; Plymouth 
Township, 12; Laflin, 10; Miners Mills, 29; Parsons, 18; Plains 
Township, 109; Ashley, 13; Hanover Township, 35; Laurel Run, 
2; Sugar Notch, 2; Warrior Run, 19; Courtdale, 6; Dallas, 2; 
Dorranceton, 16; Forty Fort, 18; Luzerne, 31; Swoyerville, 16; 
Wyoming, 14; West Wyoming, 8; Avoca, 5; Duryea, 4; Dupont, 
I ; Exeter Borough, i ; Hughestown, 1 1 ; Pittston, 20 ; West Pitts- 
ton, 4 ; Pittston Township, 4 ; Dorrance, 3 ; Kingston, 32 ; Hazle- 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page twenty-seven. 



ton, 27; Weston, 48; Conyngham Borough, 3; Freeland, 18; 
Lattimer, 11; St, John's, i ; Sandy Run, 1 1 ; Upper Lehigh, 6 ; 
West Hazleton, 72 ; Seybertsville, 2 ; Neuremburg, 22 ; Nanticoke, 
64; Nescopeck, 3 — making a total of 956 new cases in Luzerne 
County. 

On October 28 a joint-meeting of the General and Cooperation 
Committees was held in the rooms of the Wilkes-Barre Chamber 
of Commerce. 

Chairman Brown stated that the biggest problem with which 
the Cooperation Committee had to deal was that respecting 
nurses. He further stated that something should be done imme- 
diately to establish organizations in those communities. He 
advocated more pay for nurses, and said he believed that a suffi- 
cient number of nurses could be secured, whereby better progress 
would be made in combating the scourge. 

After some discussion it was voted that in Luzerne County the 
pay of graduate nurses should be fixed at $120 per month, and that 
of practical nurses at $75 per month. It was also voted that all 
nurses should be under the control of Miss Loftus and the General 
Committee. 

It was decided to recommend the placarding of all homes in 
which influenza existed in all cities, boroughs and first-class town- 
ships in Luzerne County. Also, that all matters of publicity 
concerning the "flu" in Luzerne County should be handled by the 
Chairman of the Cooperation Committee. 

Following the adjournment of this meeting the following 
"Publicity Bulletin" was issued. 

"A meeting of all District Chairmen and members of the Ways and 
Means Committee was held this morning in the auditorium of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce. Reports received showed that in certain outlying bor- 
oughs and townships officials charged with the protection of the lives of 
their constituents, as well as the general heahh of their respective com- 
munities, are placing the lives of their people below their selfish aims by 
playing politics. It was decided that, unless the said officials take imme- 
diate steps to bring about proper organization and protection of their 
respective communities, action will be taken at once to have them removed 
and their places filled by people with a sense of honor, and who will give 
to their communities the protection to which they are entitled. 

"It was also decided that there is a great need for field nurses, and 
that the sooner a sufficient number of such nurses can be secured, the 



Page twenty-eight. THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



sooner the epidemic will be checked in our community. It was decided to 
pay graduate nurses $120. per month and practical nurses $75. per month. 
All nurses will be in charge of Miss Nellie G. Loftus, who is stationed at 
the Wyoming Valley Dispensary, 184, South Washington Street, Wilkes- 
Barre. 

"It was also brought to the attention of the meeting that newspaper 
reports secured from people in boroughs and townships are not accurate, 
and that the same are an injustice to the said communities. In one com- 
munity, where it was reported that thirteen deaths had occurred, correct 
figures show that the deaths numbered only three. Therefore, it was 
decided that the General Committee should be responsible for publicity 
given out only by the Chairman of the Cooperation Committee, to whom 
are sent all official reports from communities. 

"It was also decided to recommend to the officials of all cities, boroughs 
and first class townships in Luzerne County the placarding of homes in 
which influenza exists. 

[Signed] "Percy A. Brown, 
"Chairman of the Cooperation Committee." 

Reports to the Cooperation Committee on October 31 showed 
709 new cases of influenza and 67 deaths theretofore unreported 
in forty-eight communities of Luzerne County — indicating a de- 
crease in the number of new cases, but no decrease in the number 
of deaths. 

On November 4 only seventy-three new cases in Wilkes-Barre 
were reported, and there were very gratifying indications that the 
scourge was subsiding in most parts of Luzerne County. It was 
estimated that 10,000 coal miners in the County were idle because 
of the "flu." 

A well-attended meeting of the General Committee was held in 
the auditorium of the Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Commerce in the 
evening of November 6, with Chairman Dougherty presiding and 
Hayden Williams as Secretary. The County Medical Inspector, 
in reporting on conditions in his District, stated that Berwick in 
Columbia County and Plains in Luzerne County were still having 
a serious time with the epidemic. Nanticoke, he said, had also 
been hard hit. He stated that in Newport Township, Luzerne 
County, 249 people had died from the influenza. He declared 
that, while conditions in general were improved, new cases and 
deaths would likely continue to occur during the next three or 
four weeks. 

The County Medical Inspector took advantage of this occasion 
to declare that too much could not be said about the good work 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page twenty-nine. 



accomplished by the general organization in Luzerne County, 
which had been the salvation of the entire County. Without it the 
loss of life would have been considerably greater, and many com- 
munities would have felt the full force of the epidemic. He then 
read a communication from the Acting Commissioner of Health, 
which he had received a short time previously, in part as follows : 

"Where churches and schools have been closed during the epidemic of 
influenza, great care should be practised at the time of removing restric- 
tions. Many children have been kept completely out of danger during this 
dangerous period, and to open too soon and run the chance of bringing 
them into contact with persons who have recently recovered, and who may 
perhaps be carriers, may again bring fresh outbreaks of the disease, par- 
ticularly among school children. 

"Then, too, thousands of public, private and parochial school-teachers 
have been actively engaged in nursing, and these teachers should have a 
few days of rest — preferably a week — and ought to be absent from work 
at the bedsides of the sick for that period of time before returning to the 
schools or to crowded services. 

"I would urge that you take these things into consideration, and in 
conference with the School Boards arrange for resuming sessions, so far 
as possible, when two-thirds of the children in any school district are 
ready to return from homes where no one has suffered with influenza for 
a period of seven days. Where possible, medical or nursing supervision 
would be advisable — especially for a few days after opening the schools. 

"I would suggest that, so far as practicable, the resumption of school 
work should take place about midweek, and of Churches and Sunday 
Schools on the Sunday following. This will bring children gradually 
together, and will avoid the overcrowding apt to occur in Sunday Schools 
if these schools were first opened. It is not necessary to tell you that 
fifty per cent, of the Sunday Schools are conducted in buildings not as 
well ventilated as are the public schools." 

It was stated, in this connection, that over 2,000 school teachers 
throughout the State had been active in helping to fight the 
epidemic. 

Upon motion of Percy A. Brown it was voted to publish the 
letter of the Acting Commissioner of Health, and to urge all 
school boards and Sunday Schools not to reopen their schools 
without first consulting the Boards of Health of their respective 
localities, to learn whether or not the resumption of school 
sessions would cause a further spread of the epidemic. 

Chairman Dougherty, referring to the work of the various 
committees in this locality during the epidemic, stated that, while 
talking at Harrisburg a few days previously with Dr. Royer, the 



Page thirty. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Acting Commissioner of Health, the latter informed him that the 
epidemic organization in Luzerne County was "the finest in the 
country, and the people of this County deserve great credit for 
the work done." General Dougherty then read a letter which he 
had just received from the Acting Commissioner, in part as 
follows : 

"I am very greatly indebted to you for the splendid story of the Emer- 
gency hospitals, and to note what a tremendous amount of public interest 
your committee has aroused. It is only by such community service that 
it has been possible to save the number of lives of miners that we have 
saved during this public health drive. Too much credit cannot be given 
to your local committee, and I shall see to it that the press gives the local 
people a great share of credit." 

Wm. C. Shepherd expressed the opinion that the General Com- 
mittee should communicate to the various communities in the 
County the suggestions of the State Department of Health with 
reference to the lifting of the quarantine ban wherever it had 
been imposed. 

Percy A. Brown, Chairman of the Cooperation Committee, 
reported that while the latest reports received showed there had 
been a general falling off of the disease, the daily average of new 
cases was about seven per district, compared with a recent aver- 
age of ten per district. He stated that he expected to send out on 
the ensuing day, to every community chairman in Luzerne 
County, a questionnaire asking for certain information regarding 
the total number of cases and of deaths that had occurred since 
the beginning of the epidemic, together with a complete record of 
all workers, paid and volunteer. Later on, he said, he hoped to 
have a meeting of the various chairmen, with a view to forming 
an organization to prevent a recurrence of dangerous conditions 
during future epidemics. 

County Controller Hendershot suggested that Chairman 
Brown's questionnaire should include a call for information with 
respect to the number of children orphaned by the epidemic. He 
said that if he could secure such information he would take it to 
Harrisburg and endeavor to secure additional aid from the State 
for the care of such children, He said he believed that the State 
would increase the Mothers' Pension Fund appropriation in order 
to handle such cases. 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page thirty-one. 



Wm. C. Shepherd declared that the gathering of various sta- 
tistics, as proposed, would bring together valuable information 
for use in preparing for publication a history of the epidemic. 
These facts, in his judgment, should be printed and preserved for 
the benefit of future generations. In this connection the Rev. 
Father McCabe suggested that it would be wise not to take the 
census of the various communities until the epidemic was 
thoroughly stamped out. Dr. S. P. Mengel also stated that it 
would be unwise to take a census until the epidemic was over ; 
and, as to the final data to be secured by a census, he said that 
only those facts furnished by the medical authorities should be 
accepted, inasmuch as no one else was competent to determine 
whether or not a person alleged to have been ill with influenza 
had suffered from that disease or something else. 

The County Medical Inspector told of what had been done at 
Pottsville, Schuylkill County, towards taking care of the children 
made orphans by the epidemic. He also stated that he would like 
to see a community census taken, and a permanent record made 
of all persons who had helped in combating the epidemic in 
Luzerne County. 

Dr. E. L. Meyers, a member of the School Board of the City of ^ 
Wilkes-Barre, told of the good work performed by school teachers 
during the epidemic and in various public movements, and 
suggested that, when a census of community conditions should be 
made, the aid of school teachers and school superintendents 
should be enlisted in the work. He then offered the following 
resolution, which was unanimously adopted. 

'^Resolved, That the Chairman of the Cooperation Committee be in- 
structed to appeal to the various school superintendents in Luzerne County 
for assistance in the making of a community census, for the purpose of 
ascertaining desired information in connection with the Influenza Epidemic, 
as well as for the protection of all communities against future epidemics. 
The questionnaire to be used by the school teachers in the making of the 
said census to be prepared by a committee of physicians to be named by 
the Chairman of the General Committee." 

In pursuance of this resolution Chairman Dougherty appointed 
Drs. E. L. Meyers, S. P. Mengel, J. W. Geist and G. A. Clark a 
committee to prepare the proposed census questionnaire. 

The Chairman then called attention to the necessity of devising 
a plan for the distribution of the money appropriated by Wilkes- 



Page thirty-tzvo. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Barre City and Luzerne County for epidemic work. He called 
especial attention to the fact that it was not the intention of the 
General Committee to expend the money in a haphazard manner, 
but that only such bills as the respective communities should be 
properly relieved of would be paid. The greatest care should be 
exercised in arranging a plan that, when worked out, would give 
a square deal to all the communities and effect a general feeling 
of satisfaction. 

Thereupon, on motion of Percy A. Brown, it was voted that 
the Chairman of the General Committee should name a committee 
to be known as the "Committee for the Distribution of Funds for 
the Care and Relief of Influenza Victims"; which committee 
should devise and carry out a plan for "the distribution of the 
funds provided for the expenses of emergency hospitals and the 
relief of victims of the Influenza Epidemic in Luzerne County." 

It was further voted that this committee, before deciding upon 
a plan of distribution, should procure as much information as 
possible relative to the number of cases in each community, as 
well as the expenses incurred by the several communities. 

In response to an inquiry made by the County Medical Inspec- 
tor, it was decided that the rates of pay for nurses, agreed upon at 
the joint-meeting of the General and Cooperation Committees 
held on October 28, should, in each instance, run from the begin- 
ning of the nurse's service. 

In pursuance of the action of this meeting Chairman Dough- 
erty subsequently appointed the following-named gentlemen to 
compose the Committee for the Distribution of Funds. William 
H. Conyngham, Dr. Charles H. Miner, John O'Donnell, James M. 
Stack, Fuller R. Hendershot, Harry W. Ruggles, William J. 
Rufif, Percy A. Brown, WiUiam C. Shepherd and Gen. Charles B. 
Dougherty. At a later date the members of the committee met 
and organized by selecting William C. Shepherd Chairman, Wil- 
liam J. Ruff Treasurer, and L. K. Eldridge Secretary. 

On Thursday, November 7, the General Committee came to an 
understanding with the various municipal, school and Church 
authorities that it would be safe to re-open saloons and bar-rooms 
on Saturday, November 9, churches on Sunday, November 10 
moving-picture houses, theaters, dance-halls, etc., on Novem- 
ber II, Sunday Schools on November 17, and public, parochial 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page thirty-three. 



and private schools (which had been closed on October 5) on 
November 18. 

On November 5 the Catawissa Emergency Hospital (which had 
been established in a private residence) was closed. According to 
the final report received from the hospital there had been on the 
staff six physicians (including the chief), five Graduate Nurses 
and two orderhes. Thirty-nine patients had been admitted, of 
whom two died. 

Hazleton Emergency Hospital was closed on November 8. 
The staff had consisted of two U. S. A. medical officers, five 
orderlies and enlisted men, one Graduate Nurse for five days, 
and a number of volunteer nurses — most of whom were school 
teachers. Dr. J. W. Leckie was in charge when the hospital 
closed. The total number of patients admitted to this hospital 
was 109, of which number 55 had pneumonia and 54 influenza. 
One influenza patient and forty-two pneumonia patients died — 
fourteen dying within twenty-four hours after their admission to 
the hospital. 

Exeter Emergency Hospital was closed on November 11, at 
which time Dr. James Dixon was the physician in charge. There 
had been nine Graduate Nurses and three practical nurses on the 
staff, three volunteer nurses and, for a part of the time, three 
orderlies. Influenza patients to the number of 90 and pneumonia 
patients to the number of 79 (making a total of 169) were 
admitted, of which number 42 pneumonia patients died — 13 dying 
within twenty-four hours after their admission to the hospital. 

Nanticoke Emergency Hospital was closed on November 13, at 
which time Lieut. C. E. Yates, U. S. A., was the physician in 
charge, assisted by Miss Olwen Williams, Graduate Nurse. The 
staff had comprised four physicians (including the Chief), three 
medical officers, U. S. A., three Graduate Nurses, forty-three 
volunteer nurses, one medical student and seven orderlies. Thirty 
influenza and 121 pneumonia cases had been admitted, and forty- 
one of the latter had died — fourteen dying within twenty-four 
hours after their admission to the hospital. 

Wanamie Emergency Hospital was closed on November 14, at 
which time the physicians in charge were William H. Corrigan 
and Lieut. L. W. Frederick, U. S. A., assisted by W. R. Stewart, 
a medical student. Nine Graduate Nurses and five Practical 



Page tliirty-four. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Nurses (at dififerent times), eleven volunteer nurses, thirty nurses' 
aids, thirty-one Sisters of Mercy, seven orderlies and one medical 
student were members of the staff at one time and another. Thirty 
influenza patients and 157 pneumonia patients were admitted to 
the hospital. Forty-nine of the latter died — twenty-one dying 
within twenty-four hours after their admission. 

The Wilkes-Barre Armory Emergency Hospital was closed on 
November 14. As previously noted, this hospital was opened for 
the reception of patients on October 16, with the following staff: 
Capt. E. L. Hendricks, U. S. Marine Corps, physician in charge ; 
Mrs. J. Pryor Williamson of Wilkes-Barre, a Graduate Nurse, as 
chief nurse; fifteen Graduate Nurses, nine aids and two civilian 
orderlies.* 

The preparing and serving of food for the patients and the 
entire staff of the hospital were in the hands of the Red Cross 
Canteen service, under the capable direction of Mrs. E. Birney 
Carr. For the cooking and baking of the food the services of 
Mrs. P. J. Higgins were obtained, and under her expert direc- 
tions the quality and quantity of food served were beyond criti- 
cism. 

A system was early inaugurated for the purchasing of materials 
and supplies, under which system all materials and supplies 
needed, with the exception of food, were purchased by Lieut. 
Charles A. Trein (of the 2d Infantry, Pennsylvania Reserve 
Militia), acting as Purchasing Agent. Under this system accounts 
rendered were promptly approved by Col. S. E. W^ Eyer and 
ordered to be paid, with httle confusion and no elaborate system 
of bookkeeping. With this system, and the cooperation of the 
medical officers and Graduate Nurses in charge, everything moved 
?long with smoothness and regularity. 

On October 24 Captain Hendricks was recalled to his unit at 
Camp Crane, Allentown, for oversea's duty. Unfortunately he 
was taken ill when about to leave Wilkes-Barre, and for three 
days thereafter was confined to his bed at the Hotel Sterling. 
On October 25 Lieut. Joseph Gooldstone, U. S. Marine Corps, 
was assigned to the Armory Hospital and remained in charge 

♦During the existence of the hospital the total number of physicians (including 
the Chief) on the staff was five; the number of Graduate Nurses was fifteen; the 
number of volunteer nurses was twelve (three Graduates and nine aids) ; the number 
of orderlies was ten, and of enlisted men, fifteen. 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page thirty-five. 



until October 31, when he, too, was recalled to Camp Crane to 
report for oversea's duty. Thus the hospital was deprived, for 
the second time, of a faithful, conscientious, tireless worker. 

On October 28 Mrs. J. Pryor Williamson, a Red Cross worker 
in Wilkes-Barre on extended leave, who was serving as chief 
nurse at the Armory, was recalled to Washington. With her 
knowledge of hospital work, her energy and her untiring efforts, 
she had, in her twelve days of service at the Armory, placed the 
hospital upon a working basis which left no room for doubt as to 
her ability and good judgment with respect to the matters under 
her supervision. Mrs. WilHamson was ably succeeded at the 
Armory by Miss Antoinette Schofield, Graduate Nurse, as nurse 
in charge, which position she held until the closing of the hospital. 

On November i Capt. Evan S. Evans, U. S. M. C, was 
assigned to the hospital, and remained as physician in charge 
until November 14, when he, too, was recalled to Camp Crane. 
Captain Evans, with his sunny disposition and jovial smile, made 
many friends among the patients and others with whom he came 
in contact. 

On November 14, with only three patients as inmates, it was 
decided to close the hospital. Therefore, two of the three patients 
were transferred to the City Hospital, and one was transferred 
to the Mercy Hospital. At that time an average of about thirty 
new cases of the pandemic were being reported each day in 
Wilkes-Barre. In consequence, the Armory Hospital was left 
intact for a period of about two weeks ; but as, during that time, 
no new cases were received, the wards were dismantled and the 
building was fumigated and finally closed to the public on Decem- 
ber 7. 

All articles of food remaining on hand at the closing of the 
hospital were equally divided and donated to the Wilkes-Barre 
City Hospital, Mercy Hospital and the Wyoming Valley Homoeo- 
pathic Hospital. Other articles of use and value, after being 
properly fumigated, were turned over to the City of Wilkes-Barre 
authorities for use in the city's Hospital for Contagious Diseases, 
then in course of construction. 

The total number of patients admitted to the Armory Emer- 
gency Hospital was 192, of which number 132 were males and 



Page thirty -six. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



60 were females. Ninety-four of the patients were pneumonia 
cases, and of these sixty-six died. Three died from influenza. 
Thirty-five patients died within twenty-four hours after their ad- 
mission to the hospital. The largest number of patients admitted in 
one day was eighteen — on October 17. The largest number of 
patients in the hospital on any one day was 62 ; the largest num- 
ber of deaths on any one day was seven, and the largest number 
discharged on any one day was fourteen. Eighty-six of the 
patients were under thirty years of age. 

Of the 192 patients received into the Armory Emergency Hos- 
pital 102 were from Wilkes-Barre ; 20 from Edwardsville ; 22 
from Swoyerville ; 7 from Ashley ; 6 from Plymouth ; 5 each 
from Kingston and Miners Mills; 4 each from Askam, Parsons 
and Forty Fort ; 3 from Maltby ; 2 each from Larksville, Sugar 
Notch, Nanticoke and Buttonwood ; i each from Plainsville and 
Dorranceton. 

The Plains Emergency Hospital was closed on November 18, at 
which time Lieut. H. R. Lipscomb, U. S. A., was the physician in 
charge, and Miss May Conlon, a Graduate Nurse, was the chief 
nurse. Five different physicians (not more than one at any given 
time) had served on the staff, together with four Graduate 
Nurses, three practical nurses, six volunteer nurses, one medical 
student, three orderlies and three enlisted men. Fifty patients 
were admitted (31 influenza cases, 18 pneumonia cases and one 
case of croup), and of this number thirteen of the pneumonia 
patients died — three of them within twenty-four hours after their 
admission to the hospital. 

The Dupont Emergency Hospital was closed on December 3, 
at which time Dr. James S. Dixon was the physician in charge, 
and Miss Bessie Fadden, Graduate Nurse, was the chief nurse — 
she having succeeded Miss Herman on November 19. There had 
been on the staff four Graduate Nurses, five practical nurses (who 
worked part of the time), two sanitary detachments, and a num- 
ber of Sisters of the Bernardine Order who served as volunteer 
nurses. One hundred and three patients were admitted to the 
hospital, of whom 83 were influenza and 20 were pneumonia 
cases. Twelve of the latter died — five of them within twenty- 
four hours after their admission to the hospital. 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page thirty-seven. 



The following information, concerning influenza and pneu- 
monia cases treated in some of the permanent hospitals located in 
the 5th District, has been derived from official reports made to 
the County Medical Inspector, covering the period from Octo- 
ber I, 1918, to January i, 1919. 

Wyoming Valley Homoeopathic Hospital: Total number of 
influenza cases, 68 ; pneumonia cases, 55 ; total number of 
deaths, 27. 

Mercy Hospital: Total number of influenza cases, 133; pneu- 
monia cases, 131 ; total number of deaths, 87 — including 22 who 
died within twenty-four hours after their admission to the hos- 
pital. 

Wilkes-Barre City Hospital : Total number of cases, 457, com- 
prising 223 influenza cases and 234 influenza-pneumonia cases. 
Two hundred and thirty-four of the number were male and 223 
were female patients. The total number of deaths was 135. Of 
the members of the hospital staff, 72 contracted pneumonia at 
the hospital, and four of them died. 

Pittston Hospital : Total number of influenza cases, 67 (males, 
26; females, 41) ; pneumonia cases, 32, of which 13 terminated 
fatally. 

State Hospital at Hazleton : Total number of influenza patients, 
275 ; pneumonia patients, 216, of whom 113 died. 

Berwick Hospital: Total number of influenza cases, 113; 
pneumonia cases, 25 ; total number of deaths, 16. 

On November 18 the number of cases of influenza-pneumonia 
in Wilkes-Barre had increased to such an alarming degree that 
the municipal authorities imposed another quarantine ban, clos- 
ing all amusement houses and prohibiting public assemblages. 
Eleven days later this ban was removed, although the daily aver- 
age of new cases of influenza and pneumonia totaled about thirty- 
five. The public schools of the city, however, having been closed 
about two months, were not re-opened until December 4, although 
at that time about eighteen new influenza cases a day were being 
reported in Wilkes-Barre. Conditions in other parts of the County 
seemed to be improving. 

On December 15, owing to the large increase in the number of 



Page thirty-eight. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



influenza cases in Wilkes-Barre, the municipal authorities ordered 
the closing of all schools except the City High School and private 
schools of a corresponding grade. Also, children under fourteen 
years of age were forbidden to attend theatres and motion-picture 
shows, to ride in pubHc conveyances and to visit stores. The 
sessions of Sunday Schools were also directed to be discontinued. 
The epidemic seemed to be particularly prevalent among children. 

One hundred and four cases of influenza in Wilkes-Barre were 
reported on December 17, and the next day the municipal author- 
ities imposed additional quarantine restrictions, the chief of which 
was that persons in quarantined houses — excepting physicians, 
and others given special permits — should not enter or leave such 
houses. 

On December 19 the General Committee held a meeting, which 
was attended by the Health Officers of Wilkes-Barre, Dorrance- 
ton and Hanover. Chairman Brown of the Cooperation Com- 
mittee reported that up to that date there had been 2,872 deaths 
from influenza and pneumonia in Luzerne County, 345 of which 
had occurred in Wilkes-Barre. The County Medical Inspector 
briefly outlined the situation in the County, and stated that in 
some cases officials were not reporting the true conditions in their 
localities. 

At a meeting of the General Committee held on December 21 
the County Medical Inspector stated that the conditions in the 
various communities in the 5th District were such that the Acting 
Commissioner of the State Department of Health was not inclined 
to order any further quarantine ban, unless requested to do so by 
the authorities of the respective communities. Dr. Clark, of the 
Bureau of Health of Wilkes-Barre, reported that the situation in 
the city during the last four days had been better than for some 
time previously — only 35 new cases having been reported. He said 
that so far in the month 1,020 cases had been reported, while in 
November only 825 cases had been reported. More children and 
fewer adults were being attacked by the disease. 

Mayor Kosek stated that he was averse to crippling the business 
of the community, but he felt that everything possible should be 
done to stamp out the epidemic. He said he was in favor of giv- 
ing the matter considerable publicity, and urged that officials in 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page thirty-nine. 



the outlying communities should be asked to cooperate with the 
city authorities in the enforcement of regulations. 

Resolutions were then adopted to the effect that any further 
plan for fighting the epidemic, which should be adopted, should be 
enforced vigorously until all danger had passed ; that places of 
amusement should be closed to children ; that public funerals and 
overcrowding at public gatherings should be prevented. The fol- 
lowing resolution, offered by Dr. S. P. Mengel, was then unani- 
mously adopted : 

"Resolved, That this committee endorses the rules and regulations 
adopted by the Board of Health of the City of Wilkes-Barre, and that we 
ask for the strict enforcement of the same, and that we pledge coopera- 
tion in aiding the authorities to bring about such enforcement; and fur- 
ther, that we call upon the entire public, as well as the officials of all 
communities in Luzerne County, for their cooperation in reducing the 
number of cases of influenza by obeying to the letter all rules and regu- 
lations adopted by the Wilkes-Barre Board of Health; and we also ask 
the cooperation of every newspaper in Luzerne County in bringing this 
matter to the attention of the people." 

On December 23 Mayor Kosek of Wilkes-Barre made an 
official announcement to the people of the city, to the effect that, 
if they would not voluntarily observe the reasonable quarantine 
regulations which had been adopted by the city authorities, he 
would impose a quarantine that would be the most far-reaching 
and absolute that had yet been ordered, and this without regard 
to what interests might be thereby affected. 

At this time the officers of the Bureau of Health of the city 
were firmly opposed to the lifting of the ban with respect to public 
dances, cabarets, Sunday School sessions, and other public assem- 
blages during the approaching holiday season. However, about 
the first of January, 1919, the ban against moving-picture houses 
was lifted, and on the loth of the month the remaining restrictions 
of the quarantine were removed, and Sunday Schools and the pub- 
lic and private schools of the city resumed their sessions. 

The following table, compiled from official records and reports, 
indicates the total number of known cases of influenza and pneu- 
monia, and the total number of deaths therefrom, that occurred 
in Luzerne County from October i, 1918, to January i, 1919. 



/ 



Page forty. THE SPANISH INFLU ENZA 





Total 


Total 




Total 


Total 


Community 


Cases 


Deaths 


Community 


Cases 


Deaths 




• 391 


43 




1:71; 
• 0/0 






. ISO 


Q 

0 


X lyiiiuuLii jjuiu. diiu. 






Avoca Borough 


. 250 


20 




T ceo 


o? 


Courtdale Borough... 


• 32 


Q 
0 




271; 


2^ 




. 300 




Su^'S-T Notcli Borough 


4CO 


22 




• 25 






I"? 

'■0 


0 


Dorranceton Borough 






62 


4 


(including Westmoor) 357 


80 


Swovcrvillc Boro 


2 000 


81 


TlllfTAO rs 0 T*r\ 1 1 0" rl 




05 


Ws-Trior Run Boroug"h 


T12 


TC 

•■■0 


Edwardsville Borough. 


. 609 


121 


VV CoL 1 J.dZJCLL'll J3UI U . , 


• 479 


CI 
00 


Exeter Borough 


• 950 




Wf s;t Pitt«;fnn Rnrn 

VV CoL X itLOLL^ll l-)\Jl-\J» > ■ 


681; 


Cl 

03 


Forty Fort Borough . . 


. 138 


14 






J 


Freeland Boro. and 






Wpcf Wvnm m o* Rrvrn 




22 




1,567 


104 


VV IllLC lldVCll iJUlUUgll 


182 


3 


Hughestown Borough. 


. 169 


7 


W'l^om 1 n or Romii 0"1i 
\ V J- (Jiiniig -L) \j 1 uugii . . . 


• 3-^5 


30 




• 471 


18 


Yatesville Borough . . 


0 


0 


Kingston Borough . . . 


. 660 


00 




3,012 


330 




• 25 


4 




• /yo 


7/ 


Laflin Borough 


. 84 


0 




• 74 


6 


Larksville Borough . . . 


• 594 


82 


Pittston, Pittston Twp. 






Laurel Run Boro. 


. 150 


4 


and Jenkins Twp. . . 


1,366 


261 


Luzerne Borough 


. 520 


44 


Wilkes-Barre 


4,817 


521 




• 157 


14 


Wilkes-Barre Twp. . . 




60 


Miners Mills Borough 


• 546 


40 




5 


2 


Nanticoke Borough.... 


1,772 


299 




1,629 


133 


Slocum Twp 


• 63 


6 


Bucks Twp 


0 


0 


Hanover Twp 


• 359 


46 


Nuangola Borough . . . 


0 


0 




3,700 


192 






Nescopeck Twp 


. 165 


17 


Grand totals 34,043 




New Columbus Borough 30 


4 






Total number of children made orphans in Luzerne County 




• 2,390 



The following table sets forth the number of cases of influenza 
and pneumonia treated, and the number of deaths occurring, in 
the Emergency Hospitals in Luzerne County : 



Wanamie 187 49 

Exeter 169 42 

Hazleton 109 43 

Wilkes-Barre Armory 192 69 

Nanticoke 151 41 

Dupont W, 103 12 

Plains 50 13 



Grand totals p6i 269 

The following detailed statement indicates very clearly the 
character and amount of the work done for nurses and patients 
by the members of the Red Cross Canteen of Wyoming Valley 
Chapter during the pandemic : 

Number of portions served October 

November 
December 

Total .. 



1,983 
3,714 
3,974 



9,671 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page forty-one. 



Number of quarts of soup distributed October 2,158 

November 3,946 

December 2,456 

Total 8,560 

Number of quarts of milk distributed October 50 

November 560 

December 805 

Total 1,415 

Number of lunches packed for nurses October 532 

November 917 

December 203 

Total 1,652 

Number of quarts of lemon syrup served October '20 

November 18 

Total 38 

Number of quarts of lemon jelly served October 51 

November 40 

Total 91 

Number of quarts of pineapple juice served. . October 2 

November 2 

Total 4 



Desserts virere distributed in which the following articles were used : 

Milk qts. 2,013 Peaches can i 

Gelatin qts. 295 Cocoa boxes 4 

Eggs doz. 335 Junket Tablets boxes 2 

Lemons doz. 42^2 Cornstarch boxes 155 

Rice lbs. IS Tapioca boxes 141 

Vanilla qts. 9 Gelatin boxes 202 

Grape Juice bottles 4 Lemon Jello boxes 12 

Raspberry Juice bottle i Sugar lbs. 316 

Pineapple cans 4 Ice Cream qts. 56 

Vegetables used in soup October qts. 40 

November qts. 40 

December qts. 40 

Total (approx.) qts. 120 

Rice used in soup October lbs. 26 

November lbs. 40 

December lbs. 50 

Total (approx.) lbs. 116 

Barley used in soup October lbs. 10 

November lbs. 3 

December lbs. 10 

Total (approx.) lbs. 23 



Page forty-two. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Spaghetti used in soup 



.October . . 
November 
December 



lbs. 5 
lbs. 46 
lbs. 50 



Total (approx.) lbs. lOi 



Number of influenza masks given out (approximately) 
Clothing 



Garments 



200 



Soup was distributed in Wilkes-Barre and outlying districts, and was 
sent to the Visiting Nurses' rooms and to the Home for Friendless Chil- 
dren. Corresponding amounts of desserts were sent out in Wilkes-Barre, 
and outlying districts, and to the Home for Friendless Children. Jellies 
and marmalades were donated in large quantities, and were sent out with 
the soup and desserts. The sum of $500.00 was donated for free milk for 
influenza patients. 

Although Troop Trains were being served during the month of Decem- 
ber, the Canteen continued the work incidental to the epidemic. From 
Canteen Headquarters large quantities of soup, custards and milk were 
distributed to individuals and families in the city and outskirts. Three 
thousand nine hundred and seventy-four people were served. Two thou- 
sand four hundred and fifty-six quarts of soup were distributed ; 167 
quarts, with corresponding quantities of custard, were sent to Georgetown, 
and izYz quarts to the Visiting Nurses' rooms for their lunches. Eight 
hundred and five quarts of milk were distributed. Two hundred and three 
lunches were packed for volunteer nurses on duty in the stricken homes. 
Twenty-four quarts of ice cream were distributed on Christmas Day. 
Desserts were distributed in which the following were used : 739 quarts 
milk, 84 quarts gelatin, iiyYz dozen eggs, loH dozen lemons, 4 quarts 
vanilla, 47 boxes cornstarch, 53 boxes tapioca, 33 boxes gelatin, 12 boxes 
lemon jello, 85 pounds sugar. 

At a meeting of the Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Com- 
merce held December 10, 1918, with President Philip R. Bevan 
in the chair and Hayden Williams Secretary, a very full discussion 
took place with respect to the large number of children in 
Luzerne County who had been orphaned by the influenza scourge 
(2,390, as noted on page — , ante) — creating a condition demand- 
ing the serious consideration of every citizen of the County. 
Thereupon the following resolution was adopted : 

"Resolved, That a committee be appointed to look into this matter, and 
make recommendations at a subsequent meeting of the Chamber." 

Pursuant to this resolution President Bevan appointed a com- 
mittee as follows : William C. Shepherd, Chairman, Percy A. 
Brown, C. F. Brisbin, John N. Conyngham, Charles E. Clift, 
William H. Conyngham, Fuller R. Hendershot and John D. Farn- 
ham. This committee met on January 3, 1919, and after careful 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page forty-three. 



deliberation unanimously decided that, before any consideration 
could be given to a definite plan for the permanent relief of 
influenza orphans, it would be necessary to form a general com- 
mittee drawn from various sections of the County of Luzerne. 
Chairman Shepherd declared that, whatever plan of reHef should 
be adopted, it should apply to the entire County. He said, also, 
that it would have to be decided whether or not any of the children 
could be taken care of by existing charitable organizations, or 
whether a special institution would have to be established. 

Mr. Hendershot, and others present, raised the question as to 
whether or not any of the children could be taken care of by the 
Mothers' Pension Fund. It was admitted that if this were done 
the appropriations for the Fund would have to be increased. It 
was stated that, as there were some Counties in the State which 
did not have such a Fund, the local Board might be able to secure 
an increase in its appropriations from the State funds not drawn 
upon by other Counties entitled thereto. 

Mr. Brisbin told of the investigation then going on by members 
of the Red Cross, and others, under his direction, in order to 
ascertain all conditions surrounding each individual affected by 
the ravages of the pandemic. He said that when the inquiries 
should be completed, in the course of two or three weeks, there 
would be definite information as to the exact number of orphans 
for whom permanent provision would have to be made. He said 
that in many cases orphans would either be placed in the care of 
relatives, or others, and that in the end the number to be provided 
for by the public would not be as large as then anticipated. 

It was then resolved, upon motion of Mr. Brown, that a com- 
mittee, representative of the entire County, should be appointed : 
"To devise plans for the permanent relief of all influenza orphans needing 
the same; and that prior to a meeting of this General Committee to be 
held on January 20, 1919, the Secretary should communicate with the 
various cities in Pennsylvania and other States, in which the epidemic had 
been serious, for the purpose of securing information regarding permanent 
relief plans adopted in those cities." 

In pursuance of this resolve it was decided that the following- 
named persons should be invited to come together at the Chamber 
of Commerce on January 20, 1919, at 3 o'clock P. M., for the 
purpose of effecting a "permanent organization for the relief of 
influenza orphans in Luzerne County." William C. Shepherd, 



Page forty-four. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Percy A. Brown, C. F. Brisbin, William H. Conyngham, John N. 
Conyngham, John D. Farnham, Hon. S. J. Strauss, Hon. J. V. 
Kosek, Miss Anna Koons, Charles F. Huber, Miss Mary Brady, 
Miss Rose O'Hara, Dr. Charles H. Miner, Dr. S. P. Mengel, 
Eugene W. Mulligan, Anthony C. Campbell, Mrs. George 
Galland, Mrs. Francis A. Phelps, Mrs. Andrew F. Derr, Miss 
Hobart, Miss Nellie Ritchie, Mrs. J. D. Davenport, Victor Lee 
Dodson, Frederick J. Weckesser and Harold N. Rust of Wilkes- 
Barre ; Michael Lonski, F. H. Kohlbraker, Mrs. George G. Brader 
and Mrs. Oliver Bell of Nanticoke ; Fuller R. Hendershot, Dr. H. 
L. Whitney, H. L. Freeman, Michael Maras and the Hon. Asa K. 
De Witt of Plymouth ; Mayor Henry W. Heidenreich and Harry 
A. Schmoll of Hazleton; Wilham Bray of Freeland; D. A. 
Mulherin of Glen Lyon ; the Rev. M. A. Dauber of Pike's Creek ; 
Robert Mulhall, William Joseph Peck, M. N. Donnelly, Mayor 
James Kennedy, M. W. O'Boyle, W. L. Watson, W. J. Kilgallen 
and Mrs. Joseph Peck of Pittston; Samuel M. Parke of West 
Pittston ; Mrs. E. E. Buckman, Mrs. Laurance M. Thompson and 
Harry W. Ruggles of Dorranceton; the Rev. F. Kasaczun of 
Sugar Notch; V. B. Sheeder and the Rev. Mr. Gillespie of 
Wanamie; the Rev. Selden L. Haynes, the Rev. J. F. JedHcka 
and Hubbard B. Payne of Kingston ; the Rev. J. E. Gryczka of 
Edwardsville ; James L. Reilly, Secretary of the Poor Board of 
the Central District of Luzerne County. 

In response to notices sent out to the aforementioned persons, 
about thirty-five of them assembled in the auditorium of the 
Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Commerce in the afternoon of January 
20, 1919. At the request of Chairman Shepherd Mr. John N. 
Conyngham acted as Chairman pro tern. Mr. Shepherd then ex- 
plained the purpose of the meeting, and the necessity for provid- 
ing some satisfactory method of taking care of the children 
throughout the County who had been left in a destitute condition 
by the influenza pandemic. 

The Chairman pro tern, asked whether or not a permanent 
organization should be formed. Mr. Mulhall thought that it 
would be wise to work through some organization already in 
existence and possessing power to enforce any law relating to the 
situation. He suggested the United Charities as such an organ- 
ization, and supplementary to this suggestion Mr. Schmoll re- 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page forty-five. 



ported that in Hazleton forty-six influenza orphans were at that 
time being taken care of by the United Charities of that City. 

Mrs. Galland, President of the Mothers' Pension Fund, thought 
it would be the best plan to leave as many children as possible with 
their surviving parents, and that practically all cases could be 
handled by the Pension Fund — provided appropriations for it 
should be sufficiently increased. 

On motion of the Rev. Mr. Haynes it was finally voted that a 
temporary organization be formed, to be known as the "Chamber 
of Commerce Cooperation Committee", to cooperate with exist- 
ing agencies in making investigations and providing relief for all 
deserving cases. 

Mr. Brisbin, Chairman of the CiviHan Relief Department of the 
Wyoming Valley Chapter of the Red Cross, stated that his depart- 
ment had begun investigations, regardless of any arrangements 
made, or to be made, by other committees or organizations. It 
had been stated that the Women's Committee of the Council of 
National Defense was about to institute an investigation of the 
orphan problem along the same lines being followed by the Red 
Cross, and Mr. Brisbin called attention to the danger of serious 
confusion and complications as a result of this overlapping work. 

Mrs. Phelps and Miss Brady (the latter an employe of the 
United Charities of Wilkes-Barre) spoke of conditions found by 
them in many homes where poverty reigned, and where it was 
necessary that something should be done immediately to save 
these families from being ejected from their homes by landlords 
because they could not pay their rents. Thereupon Mr. Mulhall 
inquired why the Poor Boards could not pay the rents of families 
in destitute circumstances. Mr. Dodson said that while the 
Poor Board of the Central District was publicly not in favor of 
paying rents, he believed it would take care of the rent question 
quietly by paying money for that purpose to the United Charities. 
Mr. Farnham stated that the Red Cross had some money which 
might be used for that purpose. 

Upon motion of Mr. Hendershot it was then voted that a com- 
mittee be appointed to work in conjunction with the State Depart- 
ment of Health in an attempt to secure from the State Legislature 
financial relief for all influenza orphans. As such committee the 



Page forty-six. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Chairman appointed Fuller R. Hendershot, John D. Farnham and 
Percy A. Brown. 

Upon motion of Mr. Haynes it was then voted to adjourn until 
January 22, at which time efforts would be made to devise an 
immediate plan for the permanent relief of influenza victims ; and 
that the Secretary should invite to this meeting representatives 
of the Red Cross, the United Charities, and the Poor Boards in 
Luzerne and Carbon Counties. 

The adjourned meeting of the Chamber of Commerce C(y- 
operation Committee held on January 22, 1919, was attended by 
about twenty persons. Mr. William C. Shepherd presided, and 
L. K. Eldridge acted as Secretary. Mr. Shepherd stated that it 
was the consensus of opinion that, so far as possible, all orphans 
should be kept in their respective homes or be taken care of by 
relatives or friends. Mr. Brisbin outlined the work being done 
by the Civilian Relief Department of the Red Cross, stating that 
cases were being investigated, and that in his judgment the County 
had organizations enough to take care of the work, but that money 
was greatly needed. 

Thereupon Mr. Hendershot moved that a committee be ap- 
pointed to confer with the Poor Board, the Red Cross and other 
organizations with a view to obtaining money for carrying on the 
relief work. This motion having been carried the Chairman 
appointed the following committee, to be known as the "Ways 
and Means Committee": William H. Conyngham (Chairman), 
Dr. Charles H. Miner, Anthony C. Campbell, Harold N. Rust and 
the Rev. Selden L. Haynes. 

Charles E. Keck, Esq., Solicitor for the Poor Board of the 
Central District, then outlined the duties and limitations of that 
Board, and stated that the members of the Board would be very 
glad to meet the committee just appointed and go over with them 
the matter of providing funds for needed reHef. At this point 
Judge S. J. Strauss made some very timely remarks to the effect 
that a committee should be appointed to provide means for in- 
creasing the capacity and usefulness of the Wilkes-Barre Home 
for Friendless Children. He stated that, in his opinion, 
additional organizations were not necessary, but that the Com- 
mittee should co-operate with those already existing. 

At a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce Cooperation Com- 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page forty-seven. 



mittee held on January 31, 1919, Mr, Rust, reporting for the Ways 
and Means Committee, stated that the latter had conferred with 
the attorney for the Poor Board of the Central District, who 
informed the committee that in any case where immediate relief 
was required the Board would investigate and then administer 
such relief as was necessary. 

Mr. Rust was of the opinion that, inasmuch as the taxpayers 
had provided funds for the Poor Board, action should be taken by 
this Committee to see that the Board properly took care of worthy 
cases. Further, that as the law of the State prohibits the paying 
of rents by the Board, the matter of rents should be taken care of 
by the Red Cross ; that there should be close cooperation between 
Wyoming Valley Chapter of the Red Cross and the Poor Board 
of the Central District in the matter of investigating cases ; that 
immediate relief, when needed, should be furnished, and that the 
disbursement of funds should be divided between the Poor Board 
and the Red Cross. Mr. Farnham stated that in his opinion the 
funds of the Red Cross would be available as far as they would 
go. 

On motion of Mr. Rust it was then voted that the Civilian 
Relief Department of Wyoming Valley Chapter of the Red Cross 
take to the Poor Board of the Central District the fifty specific 
cases which they had investigated; that these cases should be 
checked up against those receiving relief from the Central Poor 
District, and if it should be ascertained that there were any who 
were not receiving relief, the District be requested to add such 
names to their list for immediate investigation and relief; that 
the District pay for food, coal, etc., and that funds for the pay- 
ment of rents be placed in the hands of the Civilian Relief Depart- 
ment of the Red Cross. 

On motion of Mrs. George Galland it was voted that the Co- 
operation Committee of the Chamber of Commerce endorses the 
action of the Commissioners of Luzerne County in agreeing to 
appropriate $25,000 to the Mothers' Pension Fund provided the 
State of Pennsylvania would appropriate $1,000,000 to the general 
fund. 

A meeting of the Cooperation Committee of the Chamber of 
Commerce was held on February 19, 1919, with William C. Shep- 
herd presiding and L. K. Eldridge acting as Secretary. The 



Page forty-eight. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



minutes of the meeting held on January 31 were read and ap- 
proved. Mr. Rust reported concerning the conference held by 
the Ways and Means Committee with the Poor Board of the 
Central District, stating that the latter had agreed to carry out, so 
far as possible, the recommendations set forth in the resolution of 
the Cooperation Committee adopted on January 31. The support 
promised by the Poor Board would cover medical assistance, food, 
clothing, and nursing when necessary ; the Red Cross to pay rents. 

Mrs. McLaughlin reported that the original fifty relief cases 
had been turned over to the Poor Board, together with 202 ad- 
ditional cases. The Poor Board had stated that 90% of these 
cases were already in their hands, under investigation. It was 
also reported that several day nurseries were under consideration, 
which would permit mothers to leave their children there and 
take up employment. Mrs. Phelps stated that in a number of 
cases widows had not yet received their insurance money ; that 
some of the societies in which insurance had been carried were 
said to be bankrupt, while some of the larger insurance companies 
were holding up the payment of amounts due on policies of de- 
ceased victims of the epidemic. 

On motion of Mr. Rust Mr. Brisbin was authorized to increase 
the membership of the Civilian Relief Committee so as to meet 
the requirements of the situation of affairs. It was voted, also, 
that he be given full power to discuss and decide all matters with 
the Central Poor Board, and that he consider the wisdom of 
employing persons to do social service work during the ensuing 
three months. 

On April 30, 1919, a quorum of the Chamber of Commerce Co- 
operation Committee met in the Chamber of Commerce audit- 
orium. Chairman Shepherd stated that, inasmuch as the Red 
Cross and the Poor Board of the Central District were taking 
care of matters for which the Cooperation Committee had been 
constituted, it was his judgment that the Committee should be 
discharged from further consideration of the matters in question. 
Mr. Schmoll stated that in Hazleton all cases had been taken care 
of through regular channels, and to the best of his knowledge 
there were no destitute cases at that time. Mrs. Bell reported 
that in Nanticoke there were twelve cases where rents were being 
paid, and would be paid as long as necessary, by the Red Cross. 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page forty-nine. 



Mr. Conyngham stated that the work of the Red Cross, at that 
time, was confined to the paying of rents. He could not say, 
however, how much longer this work could be continued. It was 
suggested that, when the Red Cross had reached the limits in its 
work of paying rents, the Poor Board should take over the cases 
in Nanticoke. Mrs. McLaughlin stated that up to that date 630 
old cases and 75 new ones in the Central District had been turned 
over to the Poor Board. 

On motion of Mr. Conyngham it was voted to request the Poor 
Board to employ as many experienced women as necessary to 
investigate and look after cases after the Red Cross and other 
organizations had retired from activity in the field. The Rev. 
Dr. Farr suggested that the Cooperation Committee should re- 
ceive from Mr. Brisbin a full and final report of the important 
work done by the Civilian Relief Committee of Wyoming Valley 
Chapter of the Red Cross, which work had been carried on under 
the direction and management of Mr. Brisbin, and has been 
briefly referred to hereinbefore.* There being no further business 
to be transacted, the Committee adjourned sine die. 

The "Committee for the Distribution of Funds for the Care 
and ReHef of Influenza Victims", whose appointment is noted 
hereinbefore, held various meetings for the transaction of busi- 
ness connected with the duties confided to it. At a meeting held 
March 21, 1919, affairs relative to the various Emergency Hos- 
pitals were thoroughly discussed, following which Mr. Conyng- 
ham moved that all bills of the General Committee be paid at 
once. This motion was carried. Mr. Hendershot then moved 
that the Treasurer be instructed to pay the amounts of the various 
Emergency Hospital bills which had been approved by the Com- 
mittee. This motion was carried. 

At a subsequent meeting this Committee unanimously adopted 
the following rules of procedure relative to the settlement of bills 
arising out of the establishing of the seven Emergency Hospitals 
in Luzerne County: 

"(i) That the verified bills for the construction work of buildings, or 
altering or equipping temporary hospitals, should be paid. 

*A full report of the work performed by the Civilian Relief Committee will be 
found in the "History of Wyoming Valley Chapter of the American Red Cross," soon 
to be published. 



Page fifty. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



"(2) That the verified bills for the daily maintenance— consisting of 
food, drugs, medicines, and the overhead expense of light and fuel 
together with such special expenses as were approved by the General Com- 
mittee in relation to the general organization work throughout the County, 
be approved and paid. 

"(3) That bills in connection with the regularly established hospitals, 
and bills relating to the regular hospitals and charities, and the work of 
attendants in isolated homes, could not be approved and paid, as the 
moneys appropriated for this epidemic were appropriated for the specific 
purpose of the establishment and maintenance of hospitals for this work." 

At a meeting of the Distribution Committee held April 4, 191 9, 
it was resolved to issue to the public a "Letter of information con- 
cerning the work of the Distribution Committee". This letter 
was subsequently prepared, giving a brief account of the organ- 
ization of the committee and the work it had accomplished, and, 
having been signed by the members of the committee, was duly 
disseminated. The following paragraphs are extracts from this 
letter : 

"The appropriation of funds by Luzerne County was made under an 
Act of the Pennsylvania Legislature approved May 14, 1915, and reading 
in part as follows : 

"'Section j_ * * * "phe County Commissioners of any County may 
appropriate moneys for the support of any hospital, located within or with- 
out the limits of such County, which is engaged in charitable work and 
extends treatment and medical attention to residents of such County. 

" 'Section 2. All Acts and parts of Acts inconsistent with this Act are 
repealed.' 

"The appropriation of the City of Wilkes-Barre was made by the mem- 
bers of the City Council by a resolution reading as follows : 

" 'Whereas, the equipment and maintenance of the Emergency Hospital 
at the Armory is necessary to fight the influenza epidemic; and whereas 
much of the equipment can be later used at the Emergency Contagious 
Disease Hospital of the city of Wilkes-Barre which is now nearing 
completion, 

"Therefore, Be it Resolved, That the City of Wilkes-Barre appropriate 
$5,000., or so much thereof as may be necessary, toward the equipment and 
maintenance of the Armory or other Hospital ; that the Citizens' Com- 
mittee in charge submit bills, properly audited, to the City of Wilkes- 
Barre, and the City pay such bills to an amount equal to the appropriation 
authorized; and that the equipment, which can later be used by the 
Emergency Contagious Hospital, become the property of the City; and 
that patients at the Armory Hospital, whose circumstances permit, be 
required to pay for such services, as is done at the other hospitals in the 
City.' " 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page fifty-one. 



DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC. 



RECEIPTS. 

From Luzerne County $20,000.00 

City of Wilkes-Barre 3,999-85 

Wyoming Valley Chapter Red Cross 3,963.36 

The Bell Telephone Company (Refund) 1476 

H. A. Whiteman & Co. (Refund) 38.45 



$28,016.42 



EXPENDITURES. 



Paid to Nurses, Aids, etc., as follows : 



Emily Jones % 40.00 

Hilda Lewis 40.00 

Nellie Loftus 40.00 

Jennie May 40.00 

Minnie Fry 40.00 

Mrs. Harriet Hountz . . 54.00 

Loretta Sullivan 102.00 

Anna Walsh 80.00 

Dorothy Guy 85.50 

Nellie Fischer 7.33 

Margaret Bechtold 84.00 

Oliver Wolfe 108.00 

Raymond Davis 51.00 

Howard Roat 75-0O 

Robert Davenport 36.00 

Mrs. Martha Edwards . 48.63 

Mrs. Myrtle Mooney . . . 14.52 

Mrs. Ellen Hosey 45.53 

Bessie Evans 7.26 

Hazle Smith 7-26 

Lenore Williams 42.92 

Evelyn Jones 15-97 

Gwyn Winters 41-32 

Goldie Womelsdorf .... 39-97 

May Conlon 56.23 

Nellie Sheridan 29.47 

Katherine Dymond 32.52 

Mrs. Hilda Hogg ...... 45-87 

Mary Sinko 23.61 

Bessie Fadden 66.77 

Esther Lynn 55-i6 

Laura Hughes 57-82 

Annette Schofield 31-35 

Susan Sable 43-i6 

Sister Angela 35-42 

Ethel Jordon 3^-35 

Sarah Wilson 7-46 

Arline Hale 10.50 

Helen Wheatley 33-00 

Katherine Longshore . . 40-81 

Ruth Jones 47-52 

Verda Vivian 39-46 



Beth Porter 

Margaret Larkin 

Ada Bachstein 

Dorothy Tennyson . . , 

Edna Bachstein 

Eleanor Brown 

Mrs. E. Silvara 

Irene Lewis 

Ruth Rae 

Lida Tucker , 

Margaret Burns 

Rose Costello 

May Williams 

Clara Campbell 

Emily Sprake 

Mrs. P. Hanson , 

Jessie Cunningham . . , 

Leslie Covert 

George Berry 

Ernest Wright 

Mrs. Margaret Jacobs. 
Elizabeth Williams . . . 

Anna McNulty 

Florence Desh 

) frs. Lena Krum 

Margaret Griesmer . . 

Ellen McGuigan 

Olwen Williams , 

Kathleen Bishop 

Mrs. Jean Langford . , 
Gertrude Lenahan . . . . 

Mildred Perry 

Madge Heffron 

Mary Roache 

Alice Fuller 

Mrs. James Lockett . . 
Leyl VanHoesen . . . . , 
Mrs. F. T. Mitchell. . . . 

Anna Boyle 

Sister Pierre 

Anna McMenanin . . . . 
Olive Carle 



47-52 
47-52 
34-57 
39-46 
26.23 
26.23 
40.00 
40.00 
40.00 
50.00 
37-29 
47-33 
62.00 
20.00 

S-50 
89.83 
14.00 
42.00 
57.00 

6.00 
19.02 

15-97 
81.29 
1 1. 61 

7.26 
44-23 
54-73 
41-32 
10.16 
29.42 
20.32 
50.32 
47-56 

2.90 
43-06 
1 1. 61 

1.46 
31-16 

7.40 
41-23 
23.96 

4-35 



Page fifty-two. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Jeanette Washington . . . 

Alice McCarty 

Irene McGinty 

Margaret Andes 

Ellen Davis 

Mary Humphrey 

Margaret Porter 

Agnes Riley 

Mable Davis 

Katherine Gaffikin 

Mildred Weathers 

Anna Tobias 

Maria Blazick 

Irma Goodale 

Catherine Thomas 

Ann Shanghnessy 

Mrs. G. L. Todd 

Anna Yanalovitch 

Mary Koseck 

Millie Heslop 

Eleanor Martin 

Mrs. Ann Davies 

Helen Yablonski 

Anna Eaton 

Edith Franklin 

Mary Mieczkoski 

Margaret Burke 

Freda Turner 

Hannah Davis 

Ethel Jones 

Emma Cleason 

Carolina Bryant 

Leah Craig 

Marguerite Davey 

Bertha Griffith 

Mrs. Kathleen Brew 

Nell Jordan 

Beatrice Sorber 

Nellie Blackburn 

Helen Finley 

Barbara Swanberry .... 

Elizabeth Beeunas 

Margaret McDonald . . 

Jennie Jesuit 

Frances Keller 

Mrs. J. Bavrick 

Mrs. E. Massman 

Mrs. Blanche Evans . . . 
Mrs. Clara Swishere . . . 

Emma Wagner 

Rachael King 

Mrs. Ellen Dailey 

Mrs. Ruth Tyrell 

Mrs. Elizabeth Deitrick 

Kathryn Kransky 

Mrs. Minnie Williams . . 

Elena Heineman 

Gertrude McCarthy .... 



7.50 Nan Wintersteen 25.35 

18.00 Mrs. Kate Heston 1.61 

10.50 Mrs. E. Roszykiewicz . . 9.98 

40.81 Anna Owen 6.67 

47.52 Mrs. Marie Caffrey i3-20 

47-52 Jennie Audi 16.48 

47.52 Nora Aubrey 16.45 

39.46 Mrs. Mollie Dennison.. 18.29 

24.19 Kathleen Lavelle 59-68 

47.52 Helen Slacinski 60.27 

47.48 Josephine Reokey 34-09 

50.00 Margaret Meekin 95- 16 

54.84 Anna Groschke 50.59 

56.39 Sarah Kelley 25.81 

59.68 Mary Clemmons 21.66 

13-33 Marie Strome 27.52 

46.51 lona Brelsford 16.13 

85.48 Doris Reedy 75.81 

82.26 Mrs. A. Dowling 31.62 

88.71 Mayette Mulligan 52.85 

66.13 Helen Mais 23.12 

15.00 Marjorie Lindsay 49-25 

29.09 Alice Kochinsky 12.90 

67.20 Sophia Roach 68.87 

56.46 Edna Runyan 45-54 

69.93 Jennie Moore 11.29 

47.96 Elizabeth Morris 22.58 

19.52 Ruth Thomas 22.58 

17.96 Annette Kivler 81 

47.52 Laura Kokensperger . . . 23.06 

33.87 Violet Clark 5.65 

22.58 Mrs. Mary McClusky .. 4.94 

33.87 Martha Howard 22.53 

33.87 Blanche Wilkes 33.87 

33.87 Mary Levix 11.29 

20.40 Mary Biczcak 22.58 

19.84 Sophia Chukinski 23.33 

28.93 Helen Gajewski 16.67 

33.87 Myrtle Socha 41.67 

33.87 Sarah Taf¥ 49.57 

22.58 Mrs. Hannah Jones 22.02 

11.29 Mrs. Delia Dunn 11.67 

17.74 Mrs. Maria Jones 24.17 

16.67 Mrs. Margaret Jones . . . 10.83 

16.67 Mrs. Margaret Meehans 11.67 

46.51 Mrs. A. Steinhauer 43-55 

26.19 Mrs. C. Devaney 3.23 

41.94 Mrs. C. Davies 4.03 

.81 Mrs. Minnie Llewelyn . . 22.96 

12.50 Mrs. Marie Shaffer 8.26 

11.67 Gertrude Cooper 22.96 

28.88 Mrs. Anna Norris 27.04 

25.38 Mrs. Minnie Reich 20.56 

31.07 Mrs. Esther Hogg 14.94 

23.77 Mrs. B. Mulhern 28.23 

22.15 ^Irs. Charles Burk 3.33 

28.73 Mrs. Belle Connor 5.83 

39.52 Mrs. M. Farber 13.15 

$6,746.. 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page fifty-three. 



PAID TO EMERGENCY HOSPITALS THROUGHOUT THE 
COUNTY AS FOLLOWS. 

Dupont Borough Emergency Hospital $ 428.69 

Jacob Neuman (Dupont) 20000 

Exeter Borough Emergency Hospital 1,1 21^33 

Hazleton City Emergency Hospital 898.72 

Hazleton City Emergency Hospital * 928!63 

Nanticoke Borough Emergency Hospital 1,00982 

Newport Township Emergency Hospital (Wanamie) . .' i',320.u 
Plams Township Emergency Hospital 467.32 

$ 6,374-95 

PAID MISCELLANEOUS BILLS AS LISTED, FOR WHICH RE- 
IMBURSEMENT HAS BEEN MADE BY THE CITY OF 
WILKES-BARRE, RECEIPTED BILLS HAVING BEEN DE- 
LIVERED TO THE CITY TREASURER. 

Anthracite Bedding Mfg. Co $ 31.25 

12.50 

Mrs. Alice Adams ^ ^14.00 

Aston's Pharmacy 400 

Frank Baab 602.99 

Frank E. Baldwin 127.77 

<" !! 5-33 

3.28 

„ ^ 8-6i 

Bell Telephone Co $ 25.50 

25.65 

20.00 

« (( « 

5-92 

77.07 

Bell Telephone Co $ 2.14 

« (( 11 _ 

■ ::::;;::::::::::::::::;:: 

10.45 

Boston Store $ 78.93 

" 11.90 

" 224.66 

315-49 

W. D. Beers, Inc 23.50 

Col. Eyer paid bills as follows : 

Ruth Wildrick $ 3.00 

2.00 

Mrs. L. Davis 4.00 

" " " 2.00 

Mrs. A. Adams 3.00 

Miss Williams i.oo 

Harry Adams 3.00 

Lill Eckert i.oo 

Chester Adams 2.00 

Mrs. Phillips 2.00 

Mrs. Mary Meehan 2.00 

E. Dunning 2.00 

A. Ricaloski 2.00 

Mrs. R. Kisbon 2.00 

Mrs. C. Walsh 2.00 

Mary Rasmas 4-oo 



Page fifty -four. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Mrs. L. Williams 3.00 

Mrs. M. Reed 4.00 

Mrs. Ira Fox i.oo 

E. Eckert 8.00 

Eleanor Williams i.oo 

James Glasser 4-00 

Aaron Lane 4-00 

Joe Riggs 4 00 

Frank Baab -60 

Wilkes-Barre Cleaning Co. 18.00 

Lewis & Bennett 24.20 

108.80 

Frey Brothers 2.10 

Frank & Barber 85.05 

G. L. C. Frantz $ 5-75 

" 3-88 

15.40 

27.83 



52.86 

Gray & Company 2.00 

Green's Pharmacy I03-39 

John H. Green 125.04 

W. H. Green Pharmacy 1.72 

A. Kline 27.26 

" " 7.28 



34-54 

Isaac Long 30.47 

Lewis & Bennett Hardware Co $ 7-10 

" 2.75 

" 3.90 

" 2.45 

" .65 

<< " " " 2.75 

" " " " 22.75 

; " " " " 6.40 

" " " " 2.25 

" " " " 31.50 

« " " " 7.80 

" " " " 14.00 

« " " " 6.30 

" !! 5.65 

'< " " " .20 

<< " " " 1.80 

" " " " 3.62 

« " " " 5.26 

" " " " 1.20 

" 8.17 

" 3.25 

« " " " 1.54 

" 1.25 

»« « " " .40 

" ....... 3.15 

" « " " 4.68 



150.77 

Murray-Smith Company i4-70 

MacWilliams 36-47 



.80 



37.27 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page fifty-five. 



C. Morgan's Sons 
H. H. Roth 



Susquehanna Motor Car Co. 



C. D. Steinhauer 



Shepherd Construction Company 
Joseph Schuler 



Lieut. Trein paid bills as follows : 



John Madden 

M. V. Black 

W. Zeigler 

Kline's China Palace 

Ruth Wildrick 

Lillian Davis 

Charles Rutherford 

William Doyle 

W. B. Goeringer 

George White 

M. J. Stout 

E. L. Klipple 

C. W. Rutherford 

Motor Car Supply 

White Hardware Company 
Irene Lewis 



Mrs. Ash 

Mrs. Eckert 

W. R. Toomb 

W. A. Phillips 

Mary Black 

Ball Quick Repair Shop 



F. W. Woolworth Company 

Ball Quick Repair Shop 

W. R. Toomb 

C. J. Deibel 

Mrs. Black 

Mrs. V. Black 



Wilkes-Barre Record . . 
Fowler, Dick & Walker 
F. W. Woolworth Co. 

J. C. Madden 

Riker-Hegeman 

William Doyle 



64.20 

•25 
1.80 

145 
1.80 
3-11 
6.60 
1.70 
2.82 
1.99 
3-II 



39.85 
62.09 



.20 

10.00 
•35 
•75 
•75 
•75 
3-50 

10.50 
7.00 
7.00 

20.00 
.30 
•SO 
•75 
.66 

10.00 



3.00 
.90 

1. 00 

1-55 
•30 

1-75 



1^45 
1.50 
2^59 

13-73 
•36 

10.00 



•75 
1.68 

4^45 
•30 
7^76 
24.50 



7.75 



66.25 



22.58 
38.00 
4^85 

719-33 



101.94 



72.86 



8.50 



29.63 



Page fifty-six. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Wayne Canfield 

Serg. Bradbury 

Charles Rutherford 

W. R. Toomb 

Posten Bros 

Mrs. Williamson 

Wilkes-Barre Laundry Co. 
F. W. Woolworth Co 



Cash paid for meals by Lieut. Trein 



Wilkes-Barre Company 



Wilkes-Barre Company 



H. A. Whiteman 



H. A. Whiteman & Co. 



Wyoming Valley Undermuslin Co. 

White & Co 

Zorzi Brothers 



576 
5-50 

lO.OO 
.10 

7.75 

2.00 

3.18 
6.40 
3-95 



2.60 
1.70 
.30 
5-25 
7.00 

3.85 
3.15 



152.47 
76.24 
57.56 
69.69 

4.90 

31.75 
7.40 

lO.OO 

3-75 
10.50 
15.20 

9.00 

11.20 
6.50 
3-75 
4.00 
5.45 

11.20 
3-75 
3-75 
5.40 

38.4s 



84.08 



23.85 



355.96 



54.05 



38.45 



93-45 
100.00 
80..88 
8.50 



-$ 3,999.85 

THE FOLLOWING BILLS PAID FOR WHICH REIMBURSEMENT 
HAS BEEN MADE BY THE WYOMING VALLEY CHAPTER 
RED CROSS. 

American Red Cross, Wyoming Valley Chapter.$ 



American Red Cross, Wyoming Valley Chapter. 
Percy A. Brown & Co 



459.06 
36.00 



30.29 
10.20 



495.06 
557-60 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page fifty-seven. 



J. J. Becker Co 2.40 

W. D. Beers 268.01 

380 

« « _ 

102.95 

375-66 

Percy A. Brown & Co 330.65 

Mrs. E. B. Carr 199.00 

City Auto Co 3.85 

Davis Brothers 1.50 

Farmers' Dairy 179.58 

Green's Pharmacy 16.70 

Kline's China Palace 7.48 

W. A. King & Co 2.95 

Leonard Grocery Co 2.66 

Charles Maurer 7.44 

Mulherin Brothers 1.27 

Frank F. Matheson Co 852.47 

Poland's Hotel 5.62 

Susquehanna Motor Car Co 5.65 

" " " " 4.27 

" " i.oo 

" " 83.45 

" " 1.45 

" " 10.96 

" " " " 10.55 

" " 22.86 

" " 3.69 

" " 8.25 

" " 4-13 

" " 9.00 

165.26 

Spring Lake Ice Co 1.98 

Smith & Clark 8.53 

Lieut. Trein 8.05 

Tremayne's 3.00 

Visiting Nurse Association 315.00 

Western Union .25 

Williams Bros. & Co 35-63 

H. A. Whiteman & Co 18.25 

Red Cross Canteen Fund 157-38 

Red Cross, for bills handed us for payment, 
said bills having previously been paid by 

the Red Cross 84.08 

Red Cross, for bills handed us for payment, 
said bills having previously been paid by 

the Red Cross 83.58 

167.66 

$ 3,963.37 

PAID THE FOLLOWING BILLS COVERING PURCHASE OF MED- 
ICINES FOOD, ETC., EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE 
OF ARMORY EMERGENCY HOSPITAL, GENERAL ADMIN- 
ISTRATION, ETC. 

Alheim's Meat Market $ 2.49 

Acme Sales Co 6.08 

Mrs. Alice Adams 30.00 

Mrs. Adams i4-oo 

Armour & Co 80.13 



Page fifty-eight. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



9-00 

Acheson Bread Co. 9.76 

" 4.32 



89-13 
14.08 



Atlantic Refining Co 1.50 

" 2.38 

" 1-75 

5-63 

Frank Baab 2.50 

George T. Bell & Co ^2.35 

Bell Telephone Co 10.07 

" 7-14 

" " " 15.00 

32.21 

Boston Store -79 

12.50 

13.29 

Bratzvo (circulars) 300.00 

William Brodhun 48.00 

" " 24.00 

72.CO 

Percy A. Brown & Co 5'?fJ-2b 

" " " 272.17 

" " " 16.99 

888.4T 

J. B. Carr Biscuit Co 6.78 

" " " " 3.80 

10.58 

City Auto Co 4913 

Mrs. Kate Closki 25.00 

Davis Bros 1 60 

Deemer & Co 4.18 

40 

" 95 

II. 17 

16.70 

Durkin Bros 2.00 

Mrs. E. Eckert 30.00 

L. K. Eldridge, for addressing, postage, deliv- 
ery, etc., of history and financial report 

of epidemic 146.00 

Mrs. Emma Eckert 14 00 

14.00 

28.00 



L. K. Eldridge 2.90 

85.10 

" " 100.00 

188.00 

Evening News 32.40 

F. A. Flock .60 

Frank & Barber 3.00 

" " 29.20 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page fifty-nine. 



G. L. C. Frantz 4.23 

Frey Bros 2.10 

Wilbur Goeringer 3.50 

Green's Pharmacy 6.34 

W. V. Green 4.20 

Oscar Harvey (Historian) 100.00 

John Kashenbach 150.00 

W. A. King & Co 2.60 

Francis Klein 7000 

5500 



125.00 

Herman Knappman 43-45 

L. P. Kniffen 235.00 

S. S. Kresge & Co .90 

Mrs. W. A. Lathrop 41.00 

Lazarus Bros 14.50 

Lehigh Valley Coal Co , 150.00 

U H II 11 ^ 

92.00 

242.00 

Levy Bros 9.80 

Lewis & Bennett Co 2.21 

Lincoln Garage , 21.40 

J. C. Lingo 17.00 

B. E. Loomis 12.60 

MacWilliams .45 

Frank F. Matheson Co 918.05 

Mercy Hospital 500.00 

Montayne 25.00 

C. F. Murray-Smith Co 16.00 

J. E. Patterson 46.35 

Plain Speaker, Hazleton 8.25 

William Puckey & Bro 1.20 

The Raeder Printing Co 6.00 

George Rizzo 2.00 

Joseph Rizzo 3.00 

Charles Rutherford, orderly 28.50 

W. J. Schoonover Glass Co 2.75 

Shepherd Construction Co 3.75 

Susquehanna Motor Car Co 45.23 

Shepherd-Rust Company 8.10 

Ernest Smith 25.00 

1500 



Smith & Sansom Ice Cream Co 2.90 

" 2.90 



40.00 
5-80 



Spring Lake Ice Co 6.05 

713 

" " 15.00 

28.18 

Standard Sentinel, Hazleton 8.25 

Michael J. Stout, orderly 70.00 

" " " 30.00 



Page sixty. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Susquehanna Motor Car Co 67.54 

" " " " 101.13 

" " 89.44 

« " " " 5.50 

" " 1.30 

" " 1.36 

27975 

The Times-Leader 46.80 

W. R. Toomb & Co 24.09 

Lieut. Trein 5-i5 

40.45 

" 1.75 

" 11-55 

21.10 

" " 12.03 

92.03 

H. C. Tuck & Co 7 00 

A. P. Ward & Co 3-50 

G. L. Weitzel & Son 1.50 

Western Union 25.53 

25 

25.78 

George White, orderly 38.50 

" " " 49.CO 

87.50 

John WiHiamson & Co S.30 

Mrs. J. P. Williamson (petty cash) 40.00 

Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Commerce, postage. . 13.64 

1.30 

Wilkes-Barre Laundry Co 28.20 

Wilkes-Barre Record 32.00 

" " 12.50 

44-50 

F. W. Woolworth Co 1.80 

" 10.00 

11.80 

E. B. Yordy Co 335.00 

" " " 19.00 

35400 

E. B. Yordy Co 50.75 

Zorzi Bros 13.50 

$ 6,oio.oi 

Balance returned to Treasurer, Luzerne County 921.90 



$28,016.42 

Receipted bills and / or cancelled vouchers handed to the Controller of 
Luzerne County. 

WM. J. RUFF, 

Treasurer. 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa., December 29, 1919. , 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page sixty-one. 



of State Nurses, Graduate Nurses, Practical Nurses, Volunteer 
Pupil Nurses, Sisters of Mercy, Volunteer Aids, Red Cross Can- 
teen Workers, Members of the Visiting Nurses' Association, and 
others, who rendered important services in the various Emergency 
Hospitals in Luzerne County.* 



Augustine, Sister Mary 
Ambrose, Sister Mary 
Agnita, Sister Mary 
Ayers, James 
Annunciata, Sister 
Avellino, Sister Mary 
Angela, Sister Mary 
Agatha, Sister 
Aubrey, Nora 
Andreas, Margaret 
Allen, Mrs. Jack 
Ayers, Mrs. M. M. 
Audi, Jennie 
Alice, Sister Mary 
Adrian, Sister Mary 
Anselm, Sister Mary 
Adams, Mrs. Alice 
Austin, Elizabeth 
Austin, Ruth 
Ash, Mrs. Harry 



Bryant, Carolina 
Bishop, Kathleen 
Bechtold, Margaret 
Bachstein, Edna 
Boyle, Anna E. 
Burns, Margaret 
Boscoe, Miss 
Brown, Miss 
Beck, Mrs. Harry M. 
Black, Miss Mae 
Beaumont, Mrs. A. 
Brown, Florence 
Barker, Mrs. F. M. 
Barlow, Frances 
Butler, Julia 
Barger, Frances 
Bunting, Mrs. Douglass 
Brundage, Mae 
Casimir, Sister Mary 
Carmel, Sister Mary 



A. 



Bonaventure, Sister MaryCurry, Isabelle 



Burke, Bridget 
Beyer, Julia 
Brady, Josephine 
Berry, George 
Brannigan, Edgar 
Berchman, Sister 
Burke, Margaret 
Bachstein, Ada 
Blasick, Marie 
Bedford, Mrs. Paul 
Brown, Eleanor J. 
Brelsford, lona 
Burke, Mrs. Charles 
Bell, Mabel 
Brew, Mrs. Kathleen 
Bleschok, Mary 
Blackburn, Nellie 
Beeunas, Elizabeth 



Corcoran, Mollie 
Curry, Mrs. Sara 
Conlon, Mrs. P. J. 
Concepta, Sister Mary 
Crescentia, Sister Mary 
Covert, Leslie H. 
Cajetine, Sister 
Clemmons, Mary 
Conlon, May 
Celestine, Sister 
Clark, Mrs. Violet 
Clark, Elsie 
Caley, Margaret 
Chirkirski, Sophie 
Cobleigh, Violet 
Collett, Joyce 
Cavanaugh, Mary 
Cram, Ruth 



Carver, Mrs. Sarah 
Caffrey, Mrs. Marie 
Connor, Mrs. Belle 
Cooper, Gertrude 
Craig, Leah 
Carle, Olive 
Cunningham, Jessie 
Campbell, Clara 
Costello, Rose S. 
Camillus, Sister Mary 
Carr, Mrs. E. Birney 
Casselberry, Mrs. H. 
Carr, Helen V. 
Collins, Mrs. P. J. 
Chase, Frances 
Drexinger, Frank X. 
Davis, Raymond 
Davenport, Robert 
Dymond, Mrs. 
Davies, Mrs. Gertrude 
Dunn, Mrs. Delia 
Douglass, Mrs. Francis 
Davis, Helen C. 
Davis, Bess 
Doud, Mrs. Jos. C. 
Doud, Marjorie 
Darte, Mrs. Franck 
Derr, Mrs. A. F. 
Darling, Mrs. Thomas 
De la Salle, Sister Mary 
Davis, Mrs. Anna 
Donohoe, Agnes 
Dean, Catherine 
DeLourdes, Sister Mary 
Davitt, Michael 
Dowling, Mrs. Alice 
Dooley, Agnes 
Davis, Hannah 
Dolorosa, Sister 



*According to a report made to the State Department of Health by Dr. Charles 
H. Miner in February, 191 9, "the Committee of Hygiene and Nursing of Wyoming 
Valley Chapter of the American Red Cross was very active in securing volunteer 
nurses, so that we had during the epidemic seventy Graduate Nurses (including seven 
State Nurses), fourteen Visiting Nurses of the Visiting Nurses' Association, forty- 
four Practical Nurses and eighty nurses' aids, working under the very efficient direc- 
tion of Miss Nellie G. Loftus, the nurse in charge of District No. 5." 



Page sixty-two. 



THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 



Davis, Ellen 
Davis, Mabel 
Dennison, Mrs. Mollie 
Dietrick, Elizabeth 
Dailey, Mrs. Ellen 
Devaney, Mrs. C. 
Davies, Mrs. C. 
Davey, Beatrice 
Davey, Margaret 
Desh, Florence 
Dymond, Katharine 
DeLellis, Sister Mary 
Dolores, Sister Mary 
Eulalia. Sister Mary 
Edmund, Sister Mary 
Eugene, Sister 
Evans, Mrs. Blanche 
Eckhart, Mrs. Benjamin 
Ernestine, Sister Mary 
Edwards, Mrs. Lottie 
Eaton, Anna 
Edwards, Mrs. Martha 
Evans, Bessie 
Eileen, Sister Mary 
Evans, Mrs. D. A. 
Eckert, Mrs. Emma 
Elliott, Mrs. Stephen 
Evans, Mrs. Abbie 
Felicita, Sister Mary 
Ferguson, John 
Fadden, Bessie 
Flynn, Michael 
Franklin, Edith 
Farber, Mrs. Mary 
Fischer, Viola 
Finley, Helen 
Faulls, Marian 
Fuller, Alice 
Fry, Minnie 
Fisher, Casper R. 
Farrell, Helen 
Frantz, Mrs. H. G. 
Frantz, Eleanor M. 
Foley, Mrs. Rose 
Frantz, Jet M. 
Frantz, Georgia E. 
Frantz, Jean 
Frey, Kate 

Ferenbach, Mrs. Carl 
Griesmer, Margaret 
Gilbov, Mary 
Gildea, M. 

Germaine, Sister Mary 
Gonzaga, Sister Mary 
Genevieve, Sister Mary 
Garrahan, Michael 
Gildea, Sarah 
Griffith, Elsie 



Gaffikin, Catherine 
Gajewski, Helen 
Groschke, Anna 
Goodall, Irma 
Gleason, Emma 
Griffith, Bertha 
Guy, Dorothy 
Healy, Margerv 
Helfrick, Bertha 
Halpin, Theresa 
Hale, Arline 
Havrick, Mrs. J. 
Humphrey, Mary 
Hayden, Anna 
Haslam, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Harvey, Carol L. 
Heslop, Minnie 
Heston, Mrs. Kate 
Hoog, Mrs. Esther 
Hineman, Mrs. Ellena 
Howard, Martha 
Hayden, Mrs. P. J. 
Hosey, Mrs. Ellen 
Hughes, Laura 
Hogg, Mrs. Hilda 
Hanson, Mrs. P. J. 
Houtz, Mrs. Harriet 
Huberta, Sister Mary 
Hefifron, Madge 
Horn, Serg't John A. 
Harter, Fred. C. 
Huber, Mrs. C. F. 
Hillman, Mrs. Arthur 
Higgins, Mrs. P. J. 
Hughes, Mrs. W. E. 
Haman, Mrs. M. L. 
Horn, Margaret 
Higgins, Eileen 
Higgins, Anna 
Hand, Kathleen 
Hodge, Louise 
Herman, Miss 
Imelda, Sister Marv 
Ireland, Mrs. Maud 
Immaculata, Sister Mary 
Julia, Sister Mary 
James, Sister Mary 
Jones, Mrs.Hannah 
Jerome, Sister Mary 
Judge, Mrs. James J. 
Jordan, Nell 
Jesuit, Jennie 
Jones, Ethel 
Jordan, Ethel 
Jones, Ruth 
Joslin, Mrs. 
Jones, Erminie 
Jones, Mrs. Margaret 



Jones, Mrs. Maria 
Jones, Evelyn 
Jacobs, Mrs. Margaret 
Justine, Sister Mary 
Jones, Emily G. 
John, Sister Mary 
Jacobs, Robert S. 
Jeffries, Mrs. 
Johnson, Mrs. W. C. 
Jayne, Abbie 
Jones, Mrs. Harold 
Jenkins, Mrs. J. E. 
Kelly, Anne 
Koblonske, Helen 
Keller, Frances 
Kachinski, Alice 
Kelly, Sarah 
Koseck, Mary 
Kelly, Mary 
King, Rachael T. 
Kokensperger, Laura 
Kivler, Annette 
Kransky, Kathryn 
Krum, Mrs. Lena 
Kent, Mrs. E. H. 
Kraft, Louis J. 
Kropp, Mrs. G. W. 
Linahan, Margaret 
Lynn, Esther 
Linehan, Gertrude 
Larkin, Margaret, 
Lindsay, Marjorie 
Lavelle, Kathryn 
Longshore, Katharine 
Lee, Abbie 
List, Dorothy 
Llewellyn, Mrs. Minnie 
Levix, Mary 
Langford, Mrs. Jean 
Landers, Nellie Fisher 
Lewis, Irene 
Loftus, Nellie G. 
Lockett, Mrs. James 
Lewis, E. Hilda 
Liguori, Sister Mary 
Leger, Louis 
Loveland, Bessie 
LaFrance, Mrs. E. 
Lydon, Helen B. 
Lawall, Mrs. Elmer H. 
Lenahan, Kathleen 
Long, Mrs. Charles 
Lathrop, Mrs. W. A. 
Lee, Alice 
McAniff, Mary R. 
McCormack, Thomas 
McCormack, Mary 
McGinty, Irene 



PANDEMIC OF 1918. 



Page sixty-three. 



McDonald, Margaret 
McCIusky, Mrs. M. 
McCarthy, Gertrude 
McGuigan, Ellen 
McNulty, Anna 
McCarthy, Alice 
McMenamin, Anna 
Mildred, Sister 
Michael, Sister Mary 
Massman, Mrs. Eva 
Merrick, Catherine 
Martin, Eleanor 
Morris, Elizabeth 
Moore, Jennie 
Mulligan, Mayette 
Mieczloski, Mary 
Mace, Helen 
Meekin, Margaret 
Martin, Mary 
Meehans, Mrs. Margaret 
Mulhern, Mrs. B. 
Mooney, Mrs. Myrtle 
Mitchell, Mrs. F. T. 
May, Jennie 
Matthew, Sister Mary 
Mandeville, Mrs. C. 
Mason, Mrs. Harry C. 
Miner, Mrs. Charles H. 
Mercur, Elizabeth 
Norris, Anna E. 
Normand, Mrs. J. B. 
Noot, Mrs. James 
Norris, Esther 
Norris, Jane 
Nicholson, Edith 
O'Connell, Elizabeth 
Owens, Anna 
O'Donnell, W. J. 
Pissott, Esther 
Paul, Mother Mary 
Porter, Margaret 
Perry, Mildred 
Patricia, Sister Mary 
Perham, Airs. T. R. 
Porter, Beth 
Pierre, Sister Mary 
Price, Walter E. 
Pier, Mrs. 
Phelps, Margaret D. 
Pease, Helen 
Phillips, Mildred 
Poland, Mae 
Pettebone, Mrs. Stephen 
Phelps, Mrs. J. A. 
Raphael, Sister Mary 
Ruth, Sister Mary 
Roderick, Mrs. Richard 
Rose, Sister Mary 



Runyan, Edna 
Ross, Isabelle 
Richards, Arline 
Roach, Sophia 
Reese, Mable 
Reokey, Josephine 
Reilly, Agnes 
Reedy, Doris 
Rea, Thomas 
Reich, Mrs. Minnie 
Roszykiewicz, Mrs. E. 
Roat, Howard E. 
Tiae, Ruth B. 
Ruth, Sister Mary 
Roache, Mary 
Reilly, Margaret 
Rutter, Mrs. James M. 
Regan, Ruth 
Rush, Elizabeth 
Reynolds, Mrs. Dorrance 
Reynolds, Mrs. Peirce 
Ricketts, Mrs. Wm. B. 
Reynolds, Edith 
Searfoss, Mrs. Wm. 
Selicital, Sister 
Sebastian, Sister Mary 
Steinhauer, Mrs. A. 
Swanberry, Barbara 
Sheposki, Anthony 
Socak, Myrtle 
Shaughnessy, Anna 
Sprake, Emily 
Slacinski, Helen 
Strome, Marie L. 
Sorber, Beatrice 
Sheffer, Mrs. Marie 
Sheridan, Nellie 
Smith, Hazel P. 
Sable, Susan 
Schofield, Antoinette 
Silvara, Mrs. E. 
Sullivan, Loretta 
Sinko, Mary 
Silverstein, Serg't Jacob 
Swisher, Mrs. 
Stevens, Mrs. C. J. 
Strauss, Bertha 
Sturdevant, Jessie 
Strauss, Mrs. S. J. 
Shoemaker, Jane 
Todd, Mrs. G. L. 
Turner, Freda 
Thomas, Catherine 
Tobias, Anna 
Taff, Sarah 
Tennyson, Dorothy 
Theis, Mrs. Maud 
Thomas, Anna 



Trescott, Mary L. 
Tyrrell, Mrs. Ruth 
Thomas, Ruth 
Tucker, Lida H. 
Theophane. Sister Mary 
Thomas, Thomas T 
Trainor, Marcus T. 
Turrell, Mrs. H. W. 
Treglawn, Clara H. 
Thomas, Frances H. 
Tischler, Mrs. Joseph 
Thompson, Mrs. Eliz. 
Thompson, Mrs. Law. 
Trein, Lieut. Charles 
Ursula, Sister Mary 
Uhl, Mrs. Russell 
VanHorn, Mrs. W. R. 
Vincentia, Sister Mary 
Vivian, Verda 
VanHoesen, Leyl 
Wilfred, Sister Mary 
Walsh, Mary 
Wheatley, Helen 
Walsh, Rose 
Weathers, Mildred 
Walsh, Anna V. 
Wagner, Emma C. 
Wintersteen, Nan 
Williams, Mrs. Minnie 
Wilkes, Margaret 
Winters, Gwyn 
Wilkes, Blanche 
Womelsdorf, Goldie 
Williams, Olwen 
Williams, Lenore 
Williams, Elizabeth 
Wolfe, Oliver L. 
Washington, Jeannette 
Wilson, Sarah 
William, Sister Mary 
Williams, May 
Wright, Ernest W. 
Williamson, Mrs. J. P. 
Woodward, Mrs. J. B. 
Waller, Mrs. C. B. 
Williams, Sarah L. 
Williams, Laura 
Winchester, Mrs. B. B. 
Williams, Kate 
Williams, Grace 
Weckesser, Marion 
Walker, Jennie 
Wildermuth, Edith 
Yanalewicz, Anna 
Young, Helen 
Yaple, John Q. 
Yetter, Mrs. H. W. 



/ 




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NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 



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NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE